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Table of Contents
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 15, 2023
Registration No: 333-269735
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
POST-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
LanzaTech Global, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware873192-2018969
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
8045 Lamon Avenue, Suite 400
Skokie, Illinois 60077
Tel: (847) 324-2400
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Joe Blasko
8045 Lamon Avenue, Suite 400
Skokie, Illinois 60077
Tel: (847) 324-2400
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Kerry S. Burke
Brian Rosenzweig
Covington & Burling LLP
One CityCenter
Washington, D.C. 20001
Tel: (202) 662-6000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


Table of Contents
EXPLANATORY NOTE
LanzaTech Global, Inc. filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 on February 13, 2023, as amended on March 29, 2023, May 5, 2023, and May 22, 2023, which was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on May 24, 2023 (as amended, the “Registration Statement”). This Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 to Form S-1 (the “Post-Effective Amendment”) is being filed to update the Registration Statement to (i) include information contained in the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023, which were initially filed with the SEC on May 15, 2023 and August 9, 2023, respectively, and were subsequently amended on December 4, 2023; (ii) include information contained in the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, which was filed with the SEC on November 13, 2023; and (iii) to update certain other information in the Registration Statement.
As described in the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 9, 2023, on November 8, 2023, the Audit Committee of the Company, after considering the recommendations of management, concluded that the Company’s previously issued consolidated financial statements as of and for the quarters ended March 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023 (collectively, the “Previous Financial Statements”) should no longer be relied upon. Similarly, any previously filed or furnished reports, related earnings releases, investor presentations or similar communications of the Company describing the Previous Financial Statements should no longer be relied upon. The determination relates to the Company’s interpretation of the accounting guidance applicable to the Company’s forward purchase agreement, dated February 3, 2023, with ACM ARRT H LLC (as assigned in part to Vellar Opportunity Fund SPV LLC, the “FPA”).
The Company is filing this Post-Effective Amendment for the purpose of revising the accounting treatment of the FPA in the Previous Financial Statements, to reclassify the prepayment amount, previously recorded as part of the non-current net derivative asset in the condensed consolidated balance sheet, to the equity section of the condensed consolidated balance sheet with any remaining balance of the prepaid forward contract, including the minimum maturity consideration and the share consideration, as non-current liabilities in its condensed consolidated balance sheet in the Previous Financial Statements, included in this Post-Effective Amendment.
No additional securities are being registered under this Post-Effective Amendment. All applicable registration fees were paid at the time of the original filing of the Registration Statement.


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is declared effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 15, 2023
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
https://cdn.kscope.io/e9580416ca412eead5a5e7c93082fdaf-LanzaTech image.jpg
Up to 226,840,670 Shares of Common Stock
8,857,762 Warrants to Purchase Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of an aggregate of up to 23,403,989 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“common stock”), which consists of (i) up to 4,774,276 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of private placement warrants (the “Private Placement Warrants”) originally issued in a private placement to AMCI Sponsor II LLC (the “Sponsor”) in connection with the initial public offering (“IPO”) of AMCI Acquisition Corp. II (“AMCI”) and upon the conversion of certain working capital loans of the Sponsor, at a price of $1.00 per warrant, (ii) up to 7,499,924 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of public warrants (the “Public Warrants” and, together with the Private Placement Warrants, the “warrants”) originally issued in connection with the AMCI IPO as units of AMCI at a price of $10.00 per unit, with each unit consisting of one ordinary share and one-half of one warrant, (iii) up to 5,000,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the conversion of that certain Simple Agreement for Future Equity between BGTF LT Aggregator LP (“Brookfield”) and LanzaTech NZ, Inc., dated October 3, 2022 (the “Brookfield SAFE”) at the equivalent to a price of $10.00 per share, (iv) up to 300,000 shares of common stock that are issuable under a warrant held by ArcelorMittal XCarb S. à r.l. (“ArcelorMittal”), dated December 8, 2021 (the “AM Warrant”) at the equivalent to a price of $10.00 per share, (v) up to 4,083,486 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrants issued to certain selling stockholders pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement (the “Shortfall Warrants”), and (vi) up to 1,746,303 shares of common stock underlying options issued to certain holders under our incentive plans (the “Options” and together with the warrants, the AM Warrant and the Brookfield SAFE and the Shortfall Warrants, the “Convertible Securities”) held by certain selling stockholders. We will receive the proceeds from the exercise of any warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options for cash.
This prospectus also relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (the “selling stockholders”) of up to 4,774,276 Private Placement Warrants, up to 4,083,486 Shortfall Warrants, and up to 203,436,682 shares of common stock, which consists of (i) up to 18,500,000 shares of common stock issued on February 8, 2023 in a private placement pursuant to subscription agreements, dated March 8, 2022, October 18, 2022, February 1, 2023, and February 6, 2023 (each as amended, as applicable), at a price of $10.00 per share (the “PIPE Shares”), (ii) up to 4,774,276 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants, (iii) up to 5,000,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the conversion of the Brookfield SAFE, (iv) up to 300,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of the AM Warrant, (v) up to 2,164,839 shares of common stock held by certain selling stockholders, (vi) up to 1,746,303 shares of common stock underlying the Options held by certain selling stockholders, (vii) up to 5,916,514 shares of common stock purchased by certain selling stockholders subject to that certain forward purchase agreement by and between the Company, ACM ARRT H LLC (“ACM”), and the other parties thereto (the “Forward Purchase Agreement”), (viii) up to 4,083,486 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants, at a price equal to $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment, and (ix) up to 160,951,264 shares of common stock, required to be registered pursuant to that certain Registration Rights Agreement, dated February 8, 2023 (the “Registration Rights Agreement”), by and among us and certain of the selling stockholders. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Private Placement Warrants, the Shortfall Warrants or of the common stock by the selling stockholders pursuant to this prospectus.
The selling stockholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We are required to pay certain costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The selling stockholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of Private Placement Warrants or shares of common stock. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution.”
Our common stock and warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “LNZA” and “LNZAW,” respectively. On December 14, 2023, the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share.
The common stock and the common stock issuable upon exercise of the resale securities noted above represent a substantial percentage of the total outstanding shares of our common stock as of the date of this prospectus. Additionally, assuming all of the Convertible Securities were converted, or exercised, as applicable, the selling stockholders would own 203,436,682 shares of common stock, representing approximately 92.7% of the total outstanding common stock. So long as the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is effective, the sales of the securities being offered in this prospectus could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of the common stock. The sales of certain such securities are subject to lock-up restrictions. Furthermore, the cash proceeds associated with the exercises of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options, are dependent on the stock price inasmuch as the holders are unlikely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options, as applicable, if the exercise price thereof is less than the price of our common stock at the time of exercise. In that circumstance, such holder would be selling at a loss if they exercised their warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options, as applicable and sold their common stock. Subject to adjustment, the exercise price of the warrants is $11.50 per share and the exercise price of the AM Warrant is $10.00 per share. Subject to adjustment, the exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants is $10.00 per share. The exercise prices of the Options range from $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share. The shares currently held by the selling stockholders were purchased by them at a price per share ranging between $0.005 and $10.00. On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. If the market price for shares of common stock is less than $10.00 per share, holders of shares of common stock would be selling at a loss if they purchased the shares of common stock at $10.00 per share. Because certain selling stockholders purchased shares privately at a price below the current market price, or have the right to exercise Convertible Securities at an exercise price that is less than the current market price, they may have an incentive to sell shares of their common stock, or exercise their Convertible Securities and sell their common stock, because they could profit despite the market price of common stock falling below $10.00 per share. While these selling stockholders may, on
average, experience a positive rate of return based on the current market price, public securityholders may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchased due to differences in the purchase prices and the current market price.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws. See “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.” This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company.
We are incorporated in Delaware and our headquarters are in Skokie, Illinois. We are not a company that was formed under the laws of the People’s Republic of China. However, we have business operations in China, several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec Capital Co., Ltd. (“Sinopec”), and a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at our office in Shanghai, which support the ongoing operations and further growth of the business in China. We also hold a minority ownership stake in Beijing Shougang LanzaTech Technology Co., Ltd. (the “Shougang Joint Venture”). We license our technology in China to the Shougang Joint Venture. Entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest currently produce low carbon ethanol at four commercial scale facilities using our process technology, which, in addition to its use as fuel, is transported and processed for use in consumer products. For more information on the Shougang Joint Venture, see the section entitled “Business — Key Collaboration Agreements — Shougang Joint Venture.”
We have determined the Shougang Joint Venture to be a variable interest entity (“VIE”) for which we are not the primary beneficiary. This VIE structure was implemented to effectuate the intellectual property licensing arrangement between us and the Shougang Joint Venture and is not used to provide investors with exposure to foreign investment in China-based companies where Chinese law prohibits direct foreign investment in the operating companies. We had previously determined that we were able to exercise significant influence, but no control, over the Shougang Joint Venture through our equity holdings in the Shougang Joint Venture, our representation on the VIE’s board of directors and participation in the policy-making process. Although we have the right to appoint and elect, and currently have appointed and elected, one director to the Shougang Joint Venture’s board of directors, the agreements between us, the Shougang Joint Venture and Sinopec do not provide us with the power to direct the activities that are most significant to the economic performance of the Shougang Joint Venture. Therefore we do not consolidate the Shougang Joint Venture in our financial statements. On September 30, 2022, we determined that we no longer had significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the Shougang Joint Venture due to the significant decrease in the Shougang Joint Venture’s technological dependence on us.
Although we are incorporated and headquartered in the United States, we may still be subject to certain PRC laws due to our business operations in China. We face risks and uncertainties associated with complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and as to whether and how recent PRC government statements and regulatory developments, such as those relating to cross-border data security, anti-monopoly concerns and VIEs, would apply to us or our operations. Any application of these statements or regulatory actions to us or our operations in the future, including a limitation on or disallowance of the VIE structure by Chinese regulatory authorities, could result in a material change in our operations or in the value of the shares of our common stock.
For more information, see the following risk factors in the section entitled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to our Business and Industry”: “Political and economic uncertainty, including changes in policies of the Chinese government or in relations between China and the United States, may impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations”; “Our ability or the ability of our partners to operate in China may be impaired by changes in Chinese laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulation, restrictions on foreign investment, and other matters, which can change quickly with little advance notice”; “Our operations and financial results may be impacted if the PRC government determines that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the Shougang Joint Venture VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future”; “We and our partners may be subject to regulatory actions by the Chinese government targeting concerns related to data security and monopolistic behavior”; “Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or legal system or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations”; and “We may be subject to risks that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time”.
Pursuant to our license agreement with the Shougang Joint Venture, the Shougang Joint Venture transfers required payments by wire transfer to LanzaTech, Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary. As of the date of this prospectus, transfers of cash or other types of assets have been made between the Shougang Joint Venture and LanzaTech and its subsidiaries. The payments made between the Shougang Joint Venture and LanzaTech, Inc. have been in the ordinary course of business and have consisted of payments from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture for the sale of ethanol and payments from the Shougang Joint Venture to LanzaTech, Inc. for sales of microbes, media, consumables and equipment. Payments from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture were approximately $1.1 million and $1.6 million in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and in 2023 through the date of this prospectus, respectively. No payments were made from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture in 2021. Payments from the Shougang Joint Venture to LanzaTech, Inc. were approximately $0.3 million in each of 2022, and 2021. We have not in the past and do not intend in the future to distribute to our stockholders any amounts that we receive from the Shougang Joint Venture. For more information, see our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Our auditor, Deloitte & Touche, LLP, is not headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong and therefore is not subject to the determinations announced by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) on December 16, 2021 regarding the PCAOB’s inability to inspect or investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong. The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and related regulations are not applicable to us.
Investing in the common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 11 of this prospectus to read about factors you should consider before investing in the common stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is               , 2023.



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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the SEC using the “shelf” registration process. This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of any Convertible Securities. Under this shelf registration process, the selling stockholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such selling stockholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus.
Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from or in addition to the information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Accordingly, neither we nor any selling stockholder takes any responsibility for, or can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information that others may give. Neither we nor any selling stockholder will make any offers to sell or seek any offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the respective dates of such documents, regardless of the time of delivery of the respective documents or any sale of securities offered hereby. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the section of this prospectus titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
On February 8, 2023 (the “Closing Date”), LanzaTech NZ, Inc. (“Legacy LanzaTech”) and AMCI consummated the previously announced business combination pursuant to that certain Merger Agreement, as amended on December 7, 2022 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Legacy LanzaTech, AMCI and AMCI Merger Sub (“Merger Sub”), a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of AMCI. As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy LanzaTech, with Legacy LanzaTech continuing as the surviving corporation and as a wholly owned subsidiary of AMCI (the “Business Combination”). On the Closing Date, AMCI changed its name to LanzaTech Global, Inc.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “LanzaTech,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to LanzaTech Global, Inc. (formerly known as AMCI Acquisition Corp. II) and its consolidated subsidiaries (including LanzaTech NZ, Inc.) following the Business Combination. References to “AMCI” refer to AMCI Acquisition Corp. II prior to the Business Combination and references to “Legacy LanzaTech” refer to LanzaTech NZ, Inc. prior to the Business Combination.
References to “PRC” or “China” refer to the People’s Republic of China, which, solely for the purpose of this prospectus, exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Notwithstanding the legal form of the Business Combination pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Business Combination will be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”). Under this method of accounting, AMCI will be treated as the acquired company for financial reporting purposes, whereas Legacy LanzaTech will be treated as the accounting acquirer. In accordance with this accounting method, the Business Combination will be treated as the equivalent of Legacy LanzaTech issuing stock for the net assets of AMCI, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of AMCI will be stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, and operations prior to the Business Combination will be those of LanzaTech.
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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
Certain information contained in this document relates to or is based on studies, publications, surveys and other data obtained from third-party sources and LanzaTech’s own internal estimates and research. While we believe these third-party sources to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, we have not independently verified the market and industry data contained in this prospectus or the underlying assumptions relied on therein. Finally, while we believe our own internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any independent source.
TRADEMARKS
This document contains references to trademarks, trade names and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements that are forward-looking and as such are not historical facts. This includes, without limitation, statements regarding the financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations. These statements constitute projections, forecasts and forward-looking statements, and are not guarantees of performance. Such statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. When used in this prospectus, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strive,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. When we discuss our strategies or plans, we are making projections, forecasts or forward-looking statements. Such statements are based on the beliefs of, as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to, LanzaTech’s management.
Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:
our anticipated growth rate and market opportunities;
our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market;
the potential liquidity and trading of our securities;
our ability to raise substantial additional financing in the future;
our assessment of the competitive landscape;
our ability to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our business;
our ability to enter into, successfully maintain and manage relationships with industry partners;
our receipt of substantial additional financing to fund our operations and complete the development and commercialization of our process technologies;
the availability of governmental programs designed to incentivize the production and consumption of low-carbon fuels and carbon capture and utilization;
our ability to adequately protect our intellectual property rights;
our ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel and to manage our growth effectively;
our future financial performance and capital requirements;
our ability to increase our revenue from engineering services, sales of equipment packages and sales of CarbonSmart products and to improve our operating results; and
our ability to implement and maintain effective internal controls.
We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus.
These forward-looking statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a competitive industry, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for the management of LanzaTech to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur, and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements in this prospectus.
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The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are made only as of the date hereof. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. LanzaTech does not undertake any obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in expectations, except as required by law.
You should read this prospectus, the documents that have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and any accompanying prospectus supplement with the understanding that the actual future results, levels of activity, performance, events and circumstances of LanzaTech may be materially different from what is expected.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our warrants or common stock. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors,” “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” sections, and our historical financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Company Overview
LanzaTech is a nature-based carbon refining company that transforms waste carbon into the chemical building blocks for consumer goods such as sustainable fuels, fabrics, and packaging that people use in their daily lives. Using LanzaTech’s process technology, LanzaTech’s partners started up the world’s first commercial carbon refining plant in 2018 in China. Since then, LanzaTech’s partners in China have started up an additional three commercial plants operating in China, one in April 2021, another in September 2022, and the last one in June 2023. Additionally, LanzaTech’s partners have started up a commercial scale plant in India in September 2023 and in Belgium in November 2023. LanzaTech has numerous projects in construction, under development and in the pipeline globally. LanzaTech’s technology platform is designed to use a variety of waste feedstocks, from waste industrial gases to biomass residues and municipal solid waste. LanzaTech’s technology platform is designed to capitalize on the demand for sustainable fuels and chemicals, which can be used in multiple sectors such as aviation, automotive, textiles, home goods, consumer goods and others, to address the growing preference among major companies for environmentally conscious products and manufacturing processes.
LanzaTech is incorporated in Delaware and its headquarters are in Skokie, Illinois. LanzaTech is not a company that was formed under the laws of the PRC. However, LanzaTech has business operations in China, several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec, and a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at a LanzaTech office in Shanghai, which support the ongoing operations and further growth of the business in China. LanzaTech also holds a minority ownership stake in the Shougang Joint Venture. LanzaTech licenses its technology in China to the Shougang Joint Venture. Entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest currently produce low carbon ethanol at three commercial scale facilities using LanzaTech’s process technology, which, in addition to its use as fuel, is transported and processed for use in consumer products. For more information on the Shougang Joint Venture, see the section entitled “Business — Key Collaboration Agreements — Shougang Joint Venture.”
LanzaTech has determined the Shougang Joint Venture to be a VIE for which LanzaTech is not the primary beneficiary. LanzaTech holds its equity interest in the Shougang Joint Venture through its subsidiary, LanzaTech Hong Kong Limited, a limited liability company organized under the laws of Hong Kong. LanzaTech Hong Kong Limited is not a wholly foreign-owned enterprise (“WFOE”) organized under the laws of the PRC. This VIE structure was implemented to effectuate the intellectual property licensing arrangement between LanzaTech and the Shougang Joint Venture and is not used to provide investors with exposure to foreign investment in China-based companies where Chinese law prohibits direct foreign investment in the operating companies.
LanzaTech also has a subsidiary, LanzaTech China Limited, which is a WFOE organized under the laws of the PRC. This subsidiary employs the professionals that work in LanzaTech’s office in Shanghai. LanzaTech China Limited does not hold an equity interest in the Shougang Joint Venture, or in any other VIE in China.
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The following chart illustrates the organizational structure of LanzaTech and its subsidiaries as of the date of this prospectus:
https://cdn.kscope.io/e9580416ca412eead5a5e7c93082fdaf-Covington Org Chart SEC Format.jpg
LanzaTech has entered into a license agreement with the Shougang Joint Venture and a letter agreement with the Shougang Joint Venture and Sinopec. Although LanzaTech has the right to appoint and elect, and currently has appointed and elected, one director to the Shougang Joint Venture’s board of directors, the agreements between LanzaTech, the Shougang Joint Venture and Sinopec do not provide LanzaTech with the power to direct the activities that are most significant to the economic performance of the Shougang Joint Venture. Therefore, LanzaTech does not consolidate the Shougang Joint Venture in its financial statements. LanzaTech may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the agreements. LanzaTech may also face challenges enforcing its contractual arrangements with the Shougang Joint Venture due to legal uncertainties and jurisdictional limits.
Although LanzaTech is incorporated and headquartered in the United States, LanzaTech may still be subject to certain PRC laws due to its business operations in China. LanzaTech faces risks and uncertainties associated with the complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and as to whether and how the recent PRC government statements and regulatory developments, such as those relating to cross-border data security, anti-monopoly concerns and VIEs, would apply to LanzaTech and its operations. Any application of these statements or regulatory actions to LanzaTech and its operations in the future, including a limitation on or disallowance of the VIE structure by Chinese regulatory authorities, could result in a material change in LanzaTech’s operations and could result in a material change in the value of the shares of the common stock.
Because LanzaTech is a U.S. entity, as opposed to a company formed under the laws of the PRC, LanzaTech believes none of LanzaTech or its subsidiaries is required to obtain permission from the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”), Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”) or any other governmental agency in China to consummate the Business Combination. If (i) LanzaTech does not receive or maintain any permission or approval required of it, (ii) LanzaTech inadvertently concluded that certain permissions or approvals have been acquired or are not required, or (iii) applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations thereof change and LanzaTech becomes subject to the requirement of additional permissions or approvals in the future, LanzaTech may have to expend significant time and costs to procure them. If LanzaTech is unable to do so, on commercially reasonable terms, in a timely manner or otherwise, LanzaTech may become subject to sanctions imposed by the PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties, proceedings against LanzaTech, and other forms of sanctions, and LanzaTech’s business, reputation, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. For more information, see the following risk factors in the section entitled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to LanzaTech’s Business and Industry”: “Political and economic uncertainty, including changes in policies of the Chinese government or in relations between China and the United States, may impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations”; “Our ability or the ability of our
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partners to operate in China may be impaired by changes in Chinese laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulation, restrictions on foreign investment, and other matters, which can change quickly with little advance notice”; “Our operations and financial results may be impacted if the PRC government determines that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the Shougang Joint Venture VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future”; “We and our partners may be subject to regulatory actions by the Chinese government targeting concerns related to data security and monopolistic behavior”; “Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or legal system or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations”; and “We may be subject to risks that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time”.
Pursuant to LanzaTech’s license agreement with the Shougang Joint Venture, the Shougang Joint Venture transfers required payments by wire transfer to LanzaTech, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of LanzaTech. As of the date of this prospectus, transfers of cash or other types of assets have been made between the Shougang Joint Venture and LanzaTech and its subsidiaries. The payments made between the Shougang Joint Venture and LanzaTech, Inc. have been in the ordinary course of business and have consisted of payments from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture for the sale of ethanol and payments from the Shougang Joint Venture to LanzaTech, Inc. for sales of microbes, media, consumables and equipment. Payments from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture were approximately $1.1 million and $1.6 million in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and in 2023 through the date of this prospectus, respectively. No payments were made from LanzaTech, Inc. to the Shougang Joint Venture in 2021. Payments from the Shougang Joint Venture to LanzaTech, Inc. were approximately $0.3 million in each of 2022 and 2021. LanzaTech has not in the past and does not intend in the future to distribute to its stockholders any amounts that it receives from the Shougang Joint Venture. For more information, see the audited financial statements of LanzaTech includes elsewhere in this prospectus.
There are no restrictions or limitations on
foreign exchange;
LanzaTech’s ability to transfer cash between entities, across borders, or to U.S. investors;
LanzaTech’s ability to distribute earnings from the company, including its subsidiaries, to the holding company or U.S. investors; or
LanzaTech’s ability to settle amounts owed under agreements with the Shougang Joint Venture.
LanzaTech’s auditor, Deloitte & Touche, LLP, is not headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong and therefore is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021 regarding the PCAOB’s inability to inspect or investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong. The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and related regulations are not applicable to LanzaTech.
Business Combination
On the Closing Date, Legacy LanzaTech and AMCI consummated the previously announced Business Combination pursuant to the Merger Agreement, by and among Legacy LanzaTech, AMCI and Merger Sub. As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy LanzaTech, with Legacy LanzaTech continuing as the surviving corporation and as a wholly owned subsidiary of AMCI. On the Closing Date, AMCI changed its name to LanzaTech Global, Inc.
Immediately prior to the Business Combination, all issued and outstanding shares of preferred stock of Legacy LanzaTech were automatically converted into shares of common stock based on the applicable conversion ratio.
The number of shares of the common stock payable in the Business Combination in respect of each share of Legacy LanzaTech capital stock were determined based on the applicable exchange ratio of 4.374677 (the “Exchange Ratio”). In addition, the accumulated dividends payable to the holders of Legacy LanzaTech preferred shares were settled by delivery of the common stock, as part of the merger consideration.
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Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Business Combination (the “Effective Time”):
each warrant to purchase Legacy LanzaTech common stock that was outstanding and unexercised immediately prior to the Effective Time and would automatically be exercised or exchanged in full in accordance with its terms by virtue of the occurrence of the Business Combination, was automatically exercised or exchanged in full for the applicable shares of Legacy LanzaTech capital stock, and each such share of Legacy LanzaTech common stock was treated as being issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time and was cancelled and converted into the right to receive the applicable number of shares of common stock;
each LanzaTech warrant that was outstanding and unexercised prior to the Effective Time and was not automatically exercised in full as described above was converted into a warrant to purchase shares of common stock, in which case (a) the number of shares underlying such warrant was determined by multiplying the number of shares of Legacy LanzaTech capital stock subject to such warrant immediately prior to the Effective Time, by the Exchange Ratio, and (b) the per share exercise price of such warrant was determined by dividing the per share exercise price of such warrant immediately prior to the Effective Time by the Exchange Ratio, except that in the case of the AM Warrant, such exercise price is $10.00;
the extent not converted in full immediately prior to the Effective Time, the Brookfield SAFE was assumed by LanzaTech and convertible into shares of common stock; and
each option to purchase shares of Legacy LanzaTech common stock outstanding as of the Effective Time was converted into an option to purchase a number of shares of common stock (rounded down to the nearest whole share) equal to the product of (i) the number of shares of Legacy LanzaTech common stock subject to such option multiplied by (ii) the Exchange Ratio. The exercise price of such options is equal to the quotient of (a) the exercise price per share of such option in effect immediately prior to the Effective Time divided by (b) the Exchange Ratio.
In connection with the execution of the Merger Agreement, AMCI entered into subscription agreements (as amended on December 7, 2022, the “Initial Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (the “Initial PIPE Investors”). AMCI entered into additional subscription agreements with certain institutional and accredited investors (the “PIPE Investors”) on October 8, 2022 (as amended on December 7, 2022) and February 6, 2022 (collectively, the “PIPE Subscription Agreements” and together with the subscription agreement between AMCI and ArcelorMittal, the “Subscription Agreements”). Pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, the PIPE Investors purchased an aggregate of 18,500,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE Shares”) in a private placement at a price of $10.00 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $185 million (the “PIPE Investment”). Such aggregate number of shares and aggregate purchase price include 3,000,000 shares of common stock issued to ArcelorMittal pursuant to the AM SAFE with Legacy LanzaTech, as a result of which such PIPE Investor entered into a Subscription Agreement prior to the closing of the Business Combination. The PIPE Investment was consummated in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in Delaware on January 28, 2021, under the name AMCI Acquisition Corp. II, in order to effectuate a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses or entities. AMCI completed its initial public offering on August 6, 2021. On February 8, 2023, AMCI and Legacy LanzaTech consummated the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement. On the Closing Date, AMCI changed its name to LanzaTech Global, Inc.
The mailing address of our principal executive office is 8045 Lamon Avenue, Suite 400, Skokie, Illinois 60077, and our telephone number is (847) 324-2400.
Filing Status
Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts “emerging growth companies” or “EGCs”(as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act) from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until
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private companies are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can choose not to take advantage of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to not take advantage of the extended transition period is irrevocable. AMCI was an emerging growth company and elected to take advantage of the benefits of the extended transition period for new or revised financial accounting standards. Following the consummation of the Business Combination, LanzaTech continued to take advantage of the benefits of the extended transition period. This may make it difficult or impossible to compare LanzaTech’s financial results with the financial results of another public company that is either not an emerging growth company or is an emerging growth company that has chosen not to take advantage of the extended transition period exemptions because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Additionally, following the consummation of the Business Combination LanzaTech was a “smaller reporting company” or “SRC” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements.
There are several requirements to continue to qualify as an EGC and/or SRC, which must be assessed at various points throughout the year. The market value of LanzaTech’s common stock that was held by non-affiliates (i.e. public float) exceeded $700 million as of the last business day of the Company’s 2023 second fiscal quarter which will result in the following changes to LanzaTech’s filing status:
LanzaTech will become a large accelerated filer as of December 31, 2023.
LanzaTech will lose EGC status as of December 31, 2023.
LanzaTech no longer qualifies as an SRC as of the last business day of the Company’s second fiscal quarter of 2023. LanzaTech will continue to use the scaled disclosures permitted for SRCs through its 2023 annual report on Form 10-K, and must begin providing non-scaled larger company disclosures in its quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the first quarter of 2024. LanzaTech intends to take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations prior to the first quarter of 2024, which may also make comparison of its financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.
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THE OFFERING
Issuance of common stock
Shares of common stock offered by us
Up to 23,403,989 shares of common stock, which consists of (i) up to 4,774,276 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of Private Placement Warrants, (ii) up to 7,499,924 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of Public Warrants, (iii) up to 5,000,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the conversion of the Brookfield SAFE, (iv) up to 300,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of the AM Warrant, (v) up to 4,083,486 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants, and (vi) up to 1,746,303 shares of common stock underlying the Options held by certain selling stockholders.
Shares of common stock outstanding prior to the exercise or conversion of all Convertible Securities
196,101,624 shares (as of December 1, 2023)
Shares of common stock outstanding assuming exercise or conversion of all Convertible Securities
219,500,203 shares (based on total shares outstanding as of December 1, 2023)
Exercise price of the Private Placement Warrants
$11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein.
Exercise price of the Public Warrants
$11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein.
Exercise price of the AM Warrant
$10.00 per share, subject to adjustment.
Exercise prices of the Options
The Options have exercise prices ranging between $0.16 per share and $3.15 per share.
Exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants
$10.00 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein
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Use of Proceeds
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $188 million from the exercise of all of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options for cash. There is no exercise price that must be paid in connection with the conversion of the Brookfield SAFE. The cash proceeds associated with the exercises of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options are dependent on the stock price inasmuch as the holders are unlikely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options, as applicable, if the exercise price thereof is less than the price of our common stock at the time of exercise. In that circumstance, such holder may be less likely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options, as applicable, as such holder would be selling at a loss if they sold their common stock. Subject to adjustment, the exercise price of the warrants is $11.50 per share, the exercise price of the AM Warrant is $10.00 per share, and the exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants is $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment. The exercise prices of the Options range from $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share. The shares currently held by the selling stockholders were purchased by them at prices per share ranging between $0.005 and $10.00. On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants, and the Options for general corporate purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds.
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Resale of common stock and warrants

Shares of common stock offered by the selling stockholders
(i) Up to 18,500,000 PIPE Shares, (ii) up to 4,774,276 shares of common stock exercisable on the Private Placement Warrants, (iii) up to 5,000,000 shares of common stock pursuant to the Brookfield SAFE, (iv) up to 300,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of the AM Warrant, (v) up to 2,164,839 shares of common stock held by certain selling stockholders, (vi) up to 1,746,303 shares of common stock underlying the Options held by certain selling stockholders, (vii) up to 5,916,514 shares of common stock purchased by certain selling stockholders subject to the Forward Purchase Agreement, (viii) up to 4,083,486 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants, and (ix) up to 160,951,264 shares of common stock required to be registered pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement.
The shares of common stock currently held by the selling stockholders were purchased by them at prices per share ranging between $0.005 and $10.00. Subject to adjustment, the exercise price of the warrants is $11.50 per share, the exercise price of the AM Warrant is $10.00 per share, and the exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants is $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment. The exercise prices of the Options range from $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share. On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. If the market price for shares of common stock is less than $10.00 per share, holders of shares of common stock would be selling at a loss if they purchased the shares of common stock at $10.00 per share. Because certain selling stockholders purchased shares privately at a price below the current market price, or have the right to exercise Convertible Securities at an exercise price that is less than the current market price, they may have an incentive to sell shares of their common stock, or exercise their Convertible Securities and sell their common stock, because they could profit despite the market price of common stock falling below $10.00 per share. While these selling stockholders may, on average, experience a positive rate of return based on the current market price, public securityholders may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchased due to differences in the purchase prices and the current market price. Based on the closing price of our common stock of $5.25 on December 14, 2023, the selling stockholders would have a potential profit of up to $5.25 per share, or up to approximately $430.3 million in the aggregate (not giving effect to the issuance of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Convertible Securities held by them).
Warrants offered by the selling stockholders
(i) Up to 4,774,276 Private Placement Warrants and (ii) up to 4,083,486 Shortfall Warrants
Redemption
The Private Placement Warrants and the Shortfall Warrants are redeemable in certain circumstances. See “Description of Securities” for further discussion.
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Use of Proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Private Placement Warrants, the Shortfall Warrants or of the common stock by the selling stockholders pursuant to this prospectus.
Lock-up Restrictions
Certain of the shares of common stock issued in connection with the Business Combination are subject to restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — LanzaTech Related Party Transactions” for further discussion.
Risk Factors
Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read and consider the information set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus.
Nasdaq Ticker Symbol
The common stock and Public Warrants are listed on Nasdaq under “LNZA” and “LNZAW”, respectively.
Effective purchase prices and potential profits upon resale of the common stock and warrants offered for resale(1)
Effective purchase price of AMCI’s units in the IPO and potential profit upon resale of the common stock underlying AMCI’s units(2)
$10.00 per unit with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the PIPE Shares
$185,000,000 in the aggregate or $10.00 per share with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the Private Placement Warrants
$4,774,276 in the aggregate or $1.00 per warrant with no potential profit per warrant or in the aggregate(3)
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants
$54,904,174 in the aggregate or $11.50 per warrant(4) with no potential profit per warrant or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock pursuant to the conversion of the Brookfield SAFE
$50,000,000 in the aggregate or $10.00 per share with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of the AM Warrant
$3,000,000 in the aggregate or $10.00 per share(5) with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock held by certain selling stockholders
From $1.38 per share to $1.60 per share(6) with a potential profit between $3.65 per share and $3.87 per share or up to approximately $8.2 million in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock underlying the Options held by certain selling stockholders
From $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share(7) with a potential profit between $2.10 per share and $5.09 per share or up to approximately $6.1 million in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock purchased by certain selling stockholders subject to the Forward Purchase Agreement
$60,100,000 in the aggregate or approximately $10.16 per share with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
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Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the Shortfall Warrants
The Shortfall Warrants were granted to certain selling stockholders pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement and did not have a separate purchase price. The potential profit upon a resale of the Shortfall Warrants would be up to $0.55 per share or up to approximately $2.2 million in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants
$40,834,860 in the aggregate or approximately $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment(8) with no potential profit per share or in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the founder shares
$25,000 in the aggregate or approximately $0.005 per share with a potential profit of up to $5.245 per share or up to approximately $19.7 million in the aggregate
Effective purchase price and potential profit upon resale of the shares of common stock required to be registered pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement (other than founder shares)
From approximately $0.40 per share to $10.00 per share with a potential profit between $0 per share and $4.85 per share or up to approximately $402.4 million in the aggregate
__________________
(1)This table includes information relating to the securities held by the selling stockholders, including the price that certain selling stockholders paid for the securities. The table is in part based on LanzaTech’s internal records and is for illustrative purposes only. For additional information and assumptions, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Ownership of our Securities — The holders of the shares of common stock registered hereby may be willing to sell their shares at a price lower than the public market price.” The public offering price in AMCI’s IPO was $10.00 per unit. As seen in the table, some of the selling stockholders may realize a positive rate of return on the sale of their common stock covered by this prospectus even if the market price per share of the common stock is below $10.00 per share, in which case the public stockholders who purchased shares in AMCI’s IPO may experience a negative rate of return on their investment. Unless otherwise noted, our calculation of potential profit is based an assumption that the closing price of our common stock of $5.25 per share on December 14, 2023 is identical to the sale price. The trading price of our common stock may be different at the time a selling stockholder decides to sell its common stock.
(2)Each unit consisted of one share of AMCI’s Class A common stock and one-third of one warrant to purchase one share of AMCI’s Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share.
(3)Unless otherwise noted, our calculation of potential profit is based an assumption that the closing price of our Public Warrants of $0.55 per Public Warrant on December 14, 2023 is identical to the sale price. The trading price of our Public Warrants may be different at the time a selling stockholder decides to sell its warrants.
(4)Represents the exercise price of the Private Placement Warrants, which is subject to adjustment.
(5)Represents the exercise price of the AM Warrant, which is subject to adjustment.
(6)Represents the range of exercise prices for the Options exercised by the selling stockholder. Certain shares of the common stock registered on behalf of the selling stockholder were granted by Legacy LanzaTech to the selling stockholder as restricted stock units, so the effective purchase price is not applicable.
(7)Represents the range of exercise prices for the shares of common stock underlying the Options held by the selling stockholders, which are subject to adjustment.
(8)Represents the exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants, which is subject to adjustment.
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our equity securities involves a high degree of risk. Before you make a decision to buy our equity securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed in the section titled “Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” If any of the events or developments described below were to occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our equity securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of principal risk to which our business, operations and financial performance are subject. Each of these risks is more fully described in the individual risk factors immediately following this summary.
We have incurred losses and anticipate continuing to incur losses, and have not yet generated material revenues from marketing of CarbonSmart™ products and sale of equipment.
The success of our plant operations is significantly dependent upon the strong execution and operation of each project by the respective industry partner as we rely, and expect to continue to rely, heavily on industry partners to effect our growth strategy and to execute our business plan, and our failure to successfully maintain and manage these relationships and enter into new relationships could prevent us from achieving or sustaining profitability.
Fluctuations in the prices of waste-based feedstocks used to manufacture the products produced using our process technologies, the price of fossil feedstocks relative to the price of our waste-based feedstocks, and the availability of the waste-based feedstocks may affect our or our industry partners’ cost structure, gross margin and ability to compete.
We compete in an industry characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a complex intellectual property landscape, and our failure to successfully compete with other companies in our industry may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and market share.
We may require additional financing to fund our operations and complete the development and commercialization of the process technologies that produce each of our products or new aspects of our existing process technologies that produce each of our products, and we may not be able to do so on favorable terms.
Even if we successfully develop process technologies that produce products meeting our industry partners’ specifications, the adoption of such process technologies by our industry partners may be delayed or reduced, or our costs may increase.
Failure of LanzaJet to complete its initial facility or failure of third parties to adopt the LanzaJet process in their commercial facilities for the production of sustainable aviation fuel (“SAF”) could result in us never owning a majority stake in LanzaJet and may severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Governmental programs designed to incentivize the production and consumption of low-carbon fuels and carbon capture and utilization, may be implemented in a way that does not include products produced using our novel technology platform and process technologies or could be repealed, curtailed or otherwise
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changed, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Political and economic uncertainty, including changes in policies of the Chinese government or in relations between China and the United States, may impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ability or the ability of our partners to operate in China may be impaired by changes in Chinese laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulation, restrictions on foreign investment, and other matters, which can change quickly with little advance notice.
Our operations and financial results may be impacted if the PRC government determines that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the Shougang Joint Venture VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future.
We and our partners may be subject to regulatory actions by the Chinese government targeting concerns related to data security and monopolistic behavior.
Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or legal system or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
We may be subject to risks that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time.
We and our industry partners are subject to extensive international, national and regional laws and regulations, and any changes in laws or regulations, or failure to comply with these laws and regulations, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Market prices for more sustainable, waste-based products that our process technologies enable are subject to volatility and there is a limited referenceable market for such products.
Our patent rights and trade secrets protections may not provide commercially meaningful protection against competition, and we may not be able to operate our business without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties.
There can be no assurance that our warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have incurred losses and anticipate continuing to incur losses.
We have not achieved operating profitability in any quarter since our formation. Our net losses after tax were approximately $115.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and $55.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2022, and $76.4 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022, and $46.7 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021. As of September 30, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $813.2 million. We anticipate that we will continue to incur losses until we can sufficiently commercialize our process technologies. We cannot guarantee when we will operate profitably, if ever. The profitability of products produced using our process technologies depends largely on manufacturing costs and the market prices of the products produced using our process technologies. In the case of the partners with which we have entered licensing agreements, the prices they are able to charge impact the royalty fees we derive from their revenues. We must sustain the relationships we have developed with our current partners and successfully establish relationships with new partners to which we can license our proprietary technologies or with whom we can co-develop plants, and we must continue to find ways to further enhance our technology platform and product portfolio. If we are unable to successfully take these steps, we may never operate profitably, and, even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to sustain or increase our profitability in the future.
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The success of our plant operations is significantly dependent upon the strong execution and operation of each project by the respective industry partner as we rely, and expect to continue to rely, heavily on industry partners to effect our growth strategy and to execute our business plan. Our failure to successfully maintain and manage these relationships and enter into new relationships could delay our anticipated timelines, prevent the successful development and commercialization of products produced using our process technologies, negatively impact our financial results and prevent us from achieving or sustaining profitability.
Our ability to successfully maintain and manage partnering arrangements and enter into new partnering arrangements are critical factors to the success of our business and growth. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, heavily on such arrangements. We have limited or no control over the amount or timing of resources that any third party commits to negotiating a partnering arrangement with us or, if negotiated and entered into, the timing or amount of resources that a third party will commit to our projects. Any third party with which we are in negotiations may experience a change of policy or priorities and may discontinue negotiations with us. Any of our industry partners may fail to perform their obligations as expected. These industry partners may breach or terminate their agreements with us or otherwise fail to conduct their partnering activities successfully and in a timely manner. Further, our industry partners may not develop commercially viable products in connection with our partnering arrangements or devote sufficient resources to the development, manufacture, marketing and sale of products produced using our process technologies. Moreover, disagreements with an industry partner could develop, and any such conflict could reduce our ability to enter into future partnering agreements and negatively impact our relationships with one or more existing industry partners. Any of these events could delay our anticipated timelines, prevent the successful development and commercialization of products produced using our process technologies, negatively impact our financial results, and prevent us from ever achieving or sustaining profitability. These negative consequences could be augmented in the event that we are forced to seek replacement partners.
Our current and future partnering opportunities could be harmed if:
we do not achieve our objectives under our arrangements in a timely manner, or at all;
we disagree with our industry partners as to rights to intellectual property we jointly develop or that they must license from us, or as to their research programs or commercialization activities;
we are unable to successfully manage multiple partnering arrangements occurring at the same time;
applicable laws, regulations or state actors, domestic or foreign, impede our ability to enter into strategic arrangements;
we develop processes or enter into additional partnering arrangements that conflict with the business objectives of our other arrangements;
our industry partners become competitors of ours or enter into agreements with our competitors; or
consolidation in our target markets limits the number of potential industry partners.
Additionally, because we have entered into exclusive arrangements with industry partners, other potential partners in our industry may choose to compete against us, rather than partner with us. This may limit our partnering opportunities and harm our business and prospects. Our business also could be negatively impacted if any of our industry partners undergoes a change of control or assigns the rights or obligations under any of our agreements. If any of our industry partners were to assign these agreements to our competitors or to a third party who is not willing to work with us on the same terms or commit the same resources as the current industry partner, our business and prospects could be adversely affected.
Even if we are successful in entering into strategic partnering arrangements, there are a number of different arrangements that we can pursue, and there are no assurances that we will select and negotiate the best arrangements for us and our stockholders.
We seek to commercialize our process technologies by pursuing licensing arrangements in some markets and seek arrangements to co-develop projects in others. Our business strategy is based on a wide variety of factors,
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including the size and competitive environment in each market, and our perceived ability to best monetize our proprietary technology. The types of arrangements we enter into with our industry partners will be significant in determining the amount of risk and control that we maintain with respect to the development and commercialization of products produced using our process technologies. The contractual arrangements with our industry partners will also determine the amount of capital we need to contribute to a particular project, as well as the revenue we may receive and the margins associated with any sale of products produced using our process technologies. We will need to analyze these issues properly and negotiate corresponding arrangements with our industry partners to efficiently balance the amount of risk we take, the level of control we maintain and the amount of revenues and margins we obtain with respect to the products produced using our process technologies. There are no assurances that we will select and negotiate the best arrangements for us and our stockholders. Failure to choose optimal arrangements could result in delays or failures in the commercial development of certain products produced using our process technologies, sub-optimal economic returns and capital commitments that negatively impact our business, and our ability to successfully pursue multiple opportunities in parallel.
We have entered into and anticipate entering into non-binding letters of intent, side letters, memoranda of understanding, term sheets and other arrangements with potential industry partners and cannot assure you that such arrangements will lead to definitive agreements. If we are unable to complete these arrangements in a timely manner and on terms favorable to us, our business will be adversely affected.
We have engaged in negotiations with a number of companies and have agreed to preliminary terms regarding the development and commercialization of certain products produced using our process technologies. We may be unable to negotiate final terms in a timely manner, or at all, and there is no guarantee that the terms of any final, definitive, binding agreement will be the same or similar to those currently contemplated in a preliminary agreement. Final terms may be less favorable to us than those set forth in the preliminary agreements. Delays in negotiating final, definitive, binding agreements could slow the development and commercialization of products produced using our process technologies. Failure to agree to final terms for the development and commercialization of such products could prevent us from growing our business, result in wasted resources and cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate.
We continue to face significant risks associated with our international expansion strategy.
We are continuing to seek new opportunities to produce and commercialize products using our process technologies outside the United States through entering into licensing and co-development arrangements with new and existing industry partners. Our international business operations are subject to a variety of risks, including:
challenges associated with operating in diverse cultural and legal environments, including legal restrictions that impact our ability to enter into strategic partnering arrangements;
the need to comply with a variety of U.S. laws applicable to the conduct of overseas operations, including export control laws and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and local law requirements;
our ability, or reduced ability, to protect our intellectual property in certain countries;
potential for longer sales cycles in certain countries;
changes in or interpretations of foreign rules and regulations that may adversely affect our or our industry partners’ ability to produce or sell products manufactured using our process technologies or repatriate profits to the United States;
economic, political or social instability in foreign countries;
changes in demand for products produced using our process technologies in international markets;
the imposition of tariffs and other foreign taxes;
the imposition of limitations on, or increase of, withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures;
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limitations on the production or movement of genetically engineered products or processes and the production or sale of products or processes manufactured using genetically engineered products, into, out of and within foreign countries; and
the availability of government subsidies or other incentives that benefit competitors in their local markets that are not available to us.
Our inability to overcome these obstacles could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Even if we are successful in managing these obstacles, our industry partners internationally are subject to these same risks and may not be able to manage these obstacles effectively.
Construction of our or our partners’ plants may not be completed in the expected timeframe or in a cost-effective manner. Any delays in the construction of plants could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our projected financial performance and results of operations depend on our ability and our partners’ abilities to construct several commercial scale plants. With respect to these future plants, we and our partners also do not have agreements with engineering, procurement or construction firms. Consequently, we cannot predict on what terms such firms may agree to design and construct future plants.
If we and our partners are unable to construct these plants within the planned timeframes, in a cost-effective manner or at all due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, a failure to acquire or lease land on which to build plants, a stoppage of construction as a result of any global health crises or pandemic, the imposition or heightening of sanctions or other economic or military measures in relation to the current Russia-Ukraine conflict, unexpected construction problems, permitting and other regulatory issues, severe weather, labor disputes, and issues with subcontractors or vendors, including payment disputes, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be severely impacted.
The construction and commission of any new project is dependent on a number of contingencies some of which are beyond our and our partners’ control. There is a risk that significant unanticipated costs or delays could arise due to, among other things, errors or omissions, unanticipated or concealed project site conditions, including subsurface conditions and changes to such conditions, unforeseen technical issues or increases in plant and equipment costs, insufficiency of water supply and other utility infrastructure, or inadequate contractual arrangements. Should these or other significant unanticipated costs arise, this could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. No assurance can be given that construction will be completed on time or at all, or as to whether we and our partners will have sufficient funds available to complete construction.
Failure to continuously reduce operating and capital costs for our and our partners’ facilities that deploy our process technologies may impact adoption of our process technologies and could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As of the date of this prospectus, 12 facilities are either in engineering or under construction utilizing our technology. We anticipate the deployment of numerous commercial facilities to accelerate the commercialization of our process. If we are unable to adequately reduce and control the operating and capital costs of our and our partners’ facilities that deploy our process technologies, we will be unable to realize manufacturing volume and cost targets. We and our partners may have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our current business model. This could reduce the market adoption of our process technologies and products, damage our reputation with current or prospective industry partners and investors, and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Maintenance, expansion and refurbishment of our and our partners’ facilities, the construction of new facilities and the development and implementation of our new process technologies or new aspects of our existing process technologies involve significant risks.
Our facilities and our partners’ facilities may require regular or periodic maintenance, upgrading, expansion, refurbishment or improvement. Any unexpected operational or mechanical failure, including failure associated with
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breakdowns and forced outages, could reduce the facilities’ production capacity below expected levels, which would reduce our and our partners’ production capabilities and ultimately our revenues. Unanticipated capital expenditures associated with maintaining, upgrading, expanding, repairing, refurbishing, or improving facilities may also reduce our profitability. Our facilities and our partners’ facilities may also be subject to unanticipated damage as a result of natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other events.
If we or our partners make any major modifications to facilities, such modifications likely would result in substantial additional capital expenditures and could prolong the time necessary to bring the facility online. We or our partners may also choose to refurbish or upgrade facilities based on our assessment that such activity will provide adequate financial returns. However, such activities require time for development and capital expenditures before commencement of commercial operations, and key assumptions underpinning a decision to make such an investment may prove incorrect, including assumptions regarding construction costs and timing, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The construction of new manufacturing facilities entails a number of risks and assumptions, including the ability to begin production within the cost and timeframe estimated and to attract a sufficient number of skilled workers to meet the needs of the new facility. Additionally, our and our partners’ assessment of the projected benefits associated with the construction of new manufacturing facilities is subject to a number of estimates and assumptions, which in turn are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties that are beyond our control. If we or our partners experience delays or increased costs, our estimates and assumptions are incorrect, or other unforeseen events occur, our business, ability to supply our industry partners, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.
Finally, we may not be successful or efficient in developing or implementing new processes technologies or new aspects of our existing process technologies. Innovation in production processes involves significant expense and carries inherent risks, including difficulties in designing and developing new process technologies, development and production timing delays, lower than anticipated manufacturing yields, and product defects. Disruptions in the production process can also result from errors, defects in materials, delays in obtaining or revising operating permits and licenses, returns of product from our industry partners, interruption in our supply of materials or resources, and disruptions at our or our partners’ facilities due to accidents, maintenance issues, or unsafe working conditions, all of which could affect the timing of production ramps and yields. Production issues can lead to increased costs and may affect our and our partners’ ability to meet product demand, which could adversely impact our business and results from operations.
Our commercial success may be influenced by the price of fossil feedstocks relative to the price of our waste-based feedstocks.
Our commercial success may be influenced by the cost of our and our partners’ products produced using our process technologies relative to fossil feedstock-based products. The cost of fossil feedstock-based products is in part based on the price of fossil feedstocks, which are subject to historically fluctuating prices. If the price of waste-based feedstocks increases and/or the price of fossil feedstocks decreases, products produced using our process technologies may be less competitive relative to fossil feedstock-based products. A material decrease in the cost of conventional fossil feedstock-based products may require a reduction in the prices of products produced using our process technologies for them to remain attractive in the marketplace and may negatively impact our revenues.
Fluctuations in the prices of waste-based feedstocks used to manufacture the products produced using our process technologies may affect our or our industry partners’ cost structure, gross margin and ability to compete.
The cost to produce the products we commercialize with our industry partners is highly dependent on the cost and usage of various waste-based feedstocks. The prices of many of these feedstocks are cyclical and volatile. An increase in the price of the waste-based feedstocks used to manufacture the products produced using our process technologies would likely change our or our industry partners’ cost structure and impact our gross margin. At certain levels, waste-based feedstock prices may make the products produced using our process technologies uneconomical to manufacture.
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Although there may be indices that show the pricing of the feedstock used for production that closely track to products produced using our process technologies, there are no assurances that these indices will be valid or, if valid, that current prices will not later change. In addition, we may underestimate the volume of feedstock required to operate at commercial scale. For example, although the feedstock usage quantities are based on predictable chemical reactions, the actual consumption required to produce SAF on a commercial scale may be greater, affecting production cost and impacting production volumes. We cannot control the cost of these feedstocks, and we could underestimate feedstock pricing and volume requirements. These uncertainties could affect our costs, or the costs of our industry partners, and our gross margin. Although we believe that our process technologies can operate on multiple feedstocks in the event that prices of specific feedstocks fluctuate, we have not tested this on a commercial scale and cannot guarantee that feedstocks are interchangeable without requiring significant alterations to our process technologies.
Declines in the prices of feedstocks our competitors use to produce their products could allow them to reduce the prices of their products, which could cause us or our industry partners to reduce the prices of the products produced using our process technologies. This could make it uneconomical for our partners to produce products using our process technologies.
The cost to produce the products our competitors and our industry partners’ competitors are commercializing and attempting to commercialize is highly dependent on the cost and usage of various feedstocks. The cost to produce ethanol by our competitors is highly dependent on the prices of corn, sorghum, barley, sugar cane and sugar beets. The prices of many of these feedstocks are cyclical and volatile. Declines in the prices of the feedstocks our competitors use to produce their products could allow our competitors to reduce the prices of their products. This in turn could cause our industry partners to have to reduce the prices of any competing products that are commercialized using our process technologies, or make it uneconomical for our partners to produce products using our process technologies, which would reduce the revenues we generate in connection with our partners’ sale of such products. Even the perception of future declines in the feedstocks our competitors utilize may adversely affect the prices our industry partners can obtain from our industry partners or prevent potential industry partners from entering into agreements to buy products produced using our process technologies.
If the availability of the waste-based feedstocks used in our process technologies declines or competition for them increases, we or our business partners may experience delayed or reduced production or be required to raise the prices of the products produced using our process technologies, either of which could reduce the demand for the products produced using our process technologies and our revenue.
The production of products using our process technologies will require large volumes of waste-based feedstocks. We cannot predict the future availability of any waste-based feedstock necessary to produce products using our process technologies. The supply of waste-based feedstocks might be impacted by a wide range of factors, including increased competition, weather conditions, natural disasters, droughts, floods, changes in the waste-producing industries, the imposition or heightening of sanctions or other economic or military measures in relation to the current Russia-Ukraine conflict, or government policies and subsidies. Declines in the availability of the waste-based feedstocks used to produce products using our process technologies could cause delays or reductions in production, increases in the prices of products produced using our process technologies, and reductions in demand for products produced using our process technologies, resulting in reduced revenue for us.
We compete in an industry characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a complex intellectual property landscape, and our failure to successfully compete with other companies in our industry may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and market share.
While we do not believe we have any direct competitors, there can be no assurance that we will not have direct competition in the future, that such competitors will not substantially increase the resources devoted to the development and marketing of their products and services that compete with us, or that new or existing competitors will not enter the market in which we are active.
We face substantial indirect competition from many different sources, including companies that enjoy competitive advantages over us, such as greater financial, research and development, manufacturing, personnel and
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marketing resources, greater brand recognition, stronger historical relationships with their customers and more experience and expertise in intellectual property rights and operating within certain international locations.
These competitors may introduce competing products without our prior knowledge and without our ability to take preemptive measures in anticipation of their commercial launch. Competition may increase further as a result of greater availability of capital for investment and increased interest in our industry as more companies seek to facilitate the development of a circular carbon economy. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing on an exclusive or non-exclusive basis technologies that are more effective or less costly than those we have developed. Our failure to successfully compete may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and diminish our market share.
Technological innovation by others could render our technology and the products produced using our process technologies obsolete or uneconomical.
The fuel and chemical industries are characterized by rapid and significant technological change. Our success will depend on our ability to maintain a competitive position with respect to technological advances. Our technology and the products derived from our technology may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by technological advances by others, more efficient and cost-effective products, or entirely different approaches developed by one or more of our competitors or other third parties. Though we plan to continue to expend significant resources to enhance our technology platform and processes, there are no assurances we will be able to keep pace with technological change.
Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are difficult to predict.
Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter because of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and are difficult to predict. As a result, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the risk factors stated herein, other factors that could cause our quarterly results of operations to fluctuate include:
achievement of, or failure to achieve, technology or product development milestones needed to allow us to enter identified markets on a timely and cost-effective basis;
delays or greater than anticipated expenses associated with the scale-up and the commercialization of process technologies to produce new products;
changes in the amount that we invest to develop, acquire or license new technologies and processes;
our ability to successfully enter into partnering arrangements, and the terms of those relationships (including levels of related capital contributions);
fluctuations in the prices or availability of the feedstocks required to produce products using our process technologies or those of our competitors;
changes in the size and complexity of our organization, including our expanded operations as a public company;
changes in general economic, industry and market conditions, both domestically and in our foreign markets;
business interruptions, including disruptions in the production process at any facility where products produced using our process technologies are manufactured;
departure of executives or other key management employees;
changes in the needs for the products produced using our process technologies;
the development of new competitive technologies or products by others and competitive pricing pressures;
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the timing, size and mix of sales to our industry partners for products produced using our process technologies;
seasonal production and the sale of products produced using our process technologies; and
changes in governmental, accounting and tax rules and regulations, environmental, health and safety requirements, and other rules and regulations.
Due to these and other factors, our financial results for any quarterly or annual period may not meet our expectations or the expectations of our investors and may not be meaningful indications of our future performance.
Our financial projections may differ materially from actual results.
Our financial projections are based on our estimates and assumptions concerning various factors which are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and therefore actual results may differ materially. These estimates and assumptions include, among others: estimates of the total addressable market for products produced using our process technologies; assumptions regarding industry partner demand and performance under existing agreements and industry partner agreements currently under negotiation; estimates of the rate at which project starts can be achieved; assumptions regarding our ability to identify and convert new customers; estimates of our ability to retain and add capacity with existing customers; assumptions regarding our ability to negotiate and structure product offtake; estimates of the rate and timelines at which certain project development milestones can be achieved; assumptions regarding our ability to scale production to meet current and future demand; and assumptions regarding research, product development, product timelines, operational execution and demand. These estimates and assumptions are subject to various factors beyond our control, including, for example, changes in industry partner demand, changes in the supply of feedstock, increased construction costs for our plants, changes in the regulatory environment, the impact of global health crises, the imposition or heightening of sanctions or other economic or military measures in relation to the current Russia-Ukraine conflict, and changes in our executive team. Notably, our financial projections reflect assumptions regarding contracts that are currently under negotiation with, as well as indications of interest from, potential industry partners who may withdraw at any time. Accordingly, our future financial condition and results of operations may differ materially from our projections and expectations. Our failure to achieve our projected results could harm the trading price of our securities and our financial position.
We may require additional financing to fund our operations and complete the development and commercialization of the process technologies that produce each of our products or new aspects of our existing process technologies that produce each of our products, and we may not be able to do so on favorable terms.
Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and over time we expect to substantially increase our spending, in particular, as we:
enter into and engage in strategic partnering arrangements to produce products cost-effectively at acceptable quality levels and price points, including making capital contributions for the construction of certain plants;
invest in developments with respect to our existing process technologies in order to increase their effectiveness or reduce related capital expenditures;
expand our research and development efforts;
grow our business organization;
pursue select co-development opportunities;
seek to identify additional market opportunities for the products produced using our process technologies; and
pursue partnering arrangements.
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Excluding any proceeds that we receive from the exercise of Convertible Securities, we believe our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least 12 months from the date of this prospectus. Although we have no plans in the near- or mid-term to secure additional financing, changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control. Moreover, we and our industry partners may experience delays in the production of commercial quantities of products, in a manner that is cost-effective and at suitable quality levels, which would postpone our ability to generate revenue associated with the sale of such products. Securing additional financing could require a substantial amount of time and attention from our management and may divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from our business activities, which may adversely affect our ability to conduct our day-to-day operations. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when required or on acceptable terms, we may be required to:
delay or suspend some or all of our commercialization efforts;
decrease or abandon some or all of our research and development efforts;
decrease the financial resources dedicated to our partnering efforts, which may substantially postpone the development, manufacture, marketing or sale of existing and future products produced using our process technologies; and
suspend the growth of our organization.
To raise additional funds to support our business operations, we may sell additional equity, or convertible debt securities, which would result in the issuance of additional shares of our capital stock and dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we will be prevented from pursuing discovery, development and commercialization efforts and our ability to generate revenues and achieve or sustain profitability will be substantially harmed.
If we are unable to manage our growth and expand our operations successfully, our reputation and brand may be damaged and our business and results of operations may be harmed.
Over the past several years, we have experienced significant expansion of our business. We expect this growth to continue and accelerate in the future in connection with our commercialization efforts, expanded research and development activities, and as we transition to operating as a public company. Our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth and expansion of our operations will require us to do, among other things, the following:
enhance our operational, financial and management controls and infrastructure, human resource policies, and reporting systems and procedures;
effectively scale our operations;
successfully identify, recruit, hire, train, maintain, motivate and integrate additional employees;
expand our facilities and equipment; and
effectively manage and maintain our corporate culture.
These enhancements and improvements will require significant capital expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources, and our growth will continue to place a strain on our operational, financial and management infrastructure. Our future financial performance and our ability to execute on our business plan will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth and expansion. There are no guarantees we will be able to do so in an efficient or timely manner, or at all. Our failure to effectively manage growth and
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expansion could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, prospects and reputation.
If we lose key personnel or are unable to attract, integrate and retain additional key personnel, it could harm our research and development efforts, delay the commercialization of the new process technologies or the new aspects of our existing process technologies, delay the launch of process technologies in our development pipeline and impair our ability to meet our business objectives.
Our business involves complex operations spanning a variety of disciplines and demanding a management team and employee workforce that is knowledgeable in the many areas necessary for our operations. The loss of any key member of our management team or key research and development or operational employees, or the failure to attract and retain such employees, could prevent us from developing and commercializing new process technologies or the new aspects of our existing process technologies, delay the launch of process technologies in our development pipeline and impair our ability to meet our business objectives.
We may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees due to the intense competition for qualified personnel among technology-based businesses, or due to the scarcity of personnel with the qualifications or experience necessary for our business. Hiring, training and successfully integrating qualified personnel into our operations can be a lengthy and expensive process, and efforts to integrate such personnel may not be successful. The market for qualified personnel is very competitive because of the limited number of people available with the necessary technical skills and understanding of our technology, and given the number of companies in this industry seeking this type of personnel. If we are not able to attract, integrate and retain the necessary personnel to accomplish our business objectives, we may experience staffing constraints that will adversely affect our ability to support our internal research and development programs. In particular, our production process development, process engineering, research and development, and plant operations programs are dependent on our ability to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled scientific, technical and operational personnel. Competition for such personnel from numerous companies and academic and other research institutions may limit our ability to do so on acceptable terms, or at all. As we continue to expand our international operations, these personnel-related risks will increase and we will face additional geography-specific challenges, such as challenges hiring, training, and relocating employees to specific regions or countries and differing tax and regulatory regimes.
Even if we successfully develop process technologies that produce products meeting our industry partners’ specifications, the adoption of such process technologies by our industry partners may be delayed or reduced, or our costs may increase, due to customer qualification, negative life cycle assessment or capital investment procedures.
Even if the products produced using our process technologies are produced at contractual or targeted specifications, as the case may be, we or our industry partners may face delays or reduced demand for such products related to current or future customer qualification trials that could take several months, complicated life cycle assessments, or capital investment procedures. For the products produced using our process technologies to be accepted, our industry partners may need to test and certify them for use in their processes and, in some cases, determine whether products that contain the products produced using our process technologies satisfy additional third-party specifications. We may need to demonstrate to our industry partners that the products produced using our process technologies do not contain impurities that cause such products to behave differently than their traditional equivalents in a way that impacts their end-product quality. Our industry partners, in turn, may need to validate the use of the products produced using our process technologies for third parties. Our products may require lengthy and complex life cycle assessments to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the products through their entire life cycles, covering all relevant inputs from, and emissions into, the environment. Our industry partners’ customers may need to engage in capital investment procedures to assess their abilities to invest in our products, which may result in those customers determining not to allocate their resources to purchasing our products. Meeting these suitability standards could be a time-consuming and expensive process, and our industry partners may invest substantial time and resources into such qualification efforts without ultimately securing approval by their customers. This could materially and adversely impact our revenues until customer qualification, positive life cycle assessment or capital investment procedures are achieved and maintained.
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Failure of LanzaJet to complete its initial facility or failure of third parties to adopt the LanzaJet process in their commercial facilities for the production of SAF could result in us never owning a majority stake in LanzaJet and may severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Pursuant to the LanzaJet Investment Agreement, described in more detail in the section entitled “Business —Key Collaboration Agreements — LanzaJet Agreements — LanzaJet Amended and Restated Investment Agreement,” Mitsui, Suncor Energy Inc. (“Suncor”), British Airways PLC, a subsidiary of International Consolidated Airlines Group (“British Airways”) and Shell Ventures LLC (“Shell”) have committed to invest in LanzaJet a total of up to $120 million in second tranche investments upon the achievement of certain development milestones relating to an initial demonstration facility located at the LanzaTech Freedom Pines Biorefinery in Soperton, Georgia (the “Soperton facility”). Pursuant to the LanzaJet Investment Agreement, $45 million has already been invested in setting up LanzaJet and in constructing the Soperton facility. Our partners have likewise agreed to determine the feasibility of developing additional potential facilities for the commercial scale production of alcohol-to-jet (“ATJ”) fuel.
Although LanzaJet is currently working with the partners mentioned above to confirm project locations and solidify the appropriate project structures, and we are developing projects ourselves to construct and operate facilities that would use the LanzaJet process, there is no guarantee that these facilities will be completed or that third parties will adopt the LanzaJet process in their commercial facilities for the production of SAF. The failure of LanzaJet to complete its initial facility or of third parties to adopt the LanzaJet process in their commercial facilities could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Furthermore, we currently have approximately a 25% voting interest in LanzaJet and are not currently able to make decisions on behalf of LanzaJet without support from other shareholders. We will remain a minority shareholder in LanzaJet unless we are issued shares pursuant to the LanzaJet Amended and Restated Investment Agreement upon the closing of at least two of the second tranche investments by any of Mitsui, Suncor, British Airways and Shell. The conditions for these second tranche investments include performance requirements at the Soperton facility, regulatory approvals, the negotiation of additional agreements and other conditions which are outside our control. These conditions have not been, and may never be, met. As such, we cannot guarantee when or whether we will become majority shareholders in, or exercise control over, LanzaJet at any time in the future.
LanzaJet has an exclusive license to some of our intellectual property related to SAF.
In connection with the LanzaJet Investment Agreement, we entered into an intellectual property and technology license agreement (the “LanzaJet License Agreement”) with LanzaJet. Pursuant to the LanzaJet License Agreement, we granted to LanzaJet a perpetual, worldwide, non-transferrable, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable, exclusive license to certain intellectual property related to the conversion of ethanol to fuel. This license is exclusive including as to us. With the exception of certain pre-existing SAF obligations and development projects for which we have already been granted sublicenses, we are unable to undertake new SAF production opportunities using the licensed intellectual property, or otherwise use such intellectual property for the conversion of ethanol to fuel, without the prior consent of LanzaJet while the LanzaJet License Agreement is in effect. We cannot guarantee that LanzaJet would grant such consent or otherwise agree to grant to us a license of intellectual property and our receipt thereof would depend on negotiations with our fellow shareholders of LanzaJet.
In connection with the LanzaJet Shareholder Loan described in more detail in the section entitled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Legacy LanzaTech Related Party Transactions — LanzaJet Shareholder Loan,” LanzaJet collaterally assigned its license from LanzaTech to secure the LanzaJet Freedom Pines Fuels LLC (“FPF”) shareholder debt. In the event of a default by FPF, LanzaJet shareholders could prevent LanzaJet from funding FPF to cure its default and ultimately foreclose on LanzaJet’s license.
Our and our industry partners’ failure to accurately forecast demand for any product produced using our process technologies could result in an unexpected shortfall or surplus that could negatively affect our results of operations.
Because of the length of time it takes to develop and commercialize the products produced using our process technologies, we and our industry partners must make development and production decisions well in advance of
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commercial production and sale of such products. Our and our industry partners’ ability to accurately forecast demand for any of the products produced using our process technologies that are commercialized can be adversely affected by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including actions by our competitors, changes in market conditions, environmental factors and adverse weather conditions. A shortfall or surplus in the supply of products produced using our process technologies may reduce our revenues, damage our reputation and adversely affect industry partner relationships, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our success is highly dependent on our ability to maintain and efficiently utilize our technology platform, and to effectively identify potential products for which to develop and commercialize new process technologies, and problems related to our technology platform could harm our business and result in wasted research and development efforts.
We are highly dependent on our technology platform for the development and commercialization of products and new process technologies. If we experience challenges in our technology platform, such as problems with engineering new microbes, or if we encounter problems interpreting and analyzing data using our process technologies, our business and ability to compete may be harmed and our financial condition negatively affected.
We may not be successful in identifying new market opportunities and needs and developing our technology platform, or process technologies to produce products to meet those needs, which would limit our prospects and lead to greater dependency on the success of a smaller number of target products.
The success of our business model depends in part on our ability to identify new market opportunities and needs for our technology platform, or process technologies to produce products to meet those needs. The manufacturing technologies we research and develop are new and continuously changing and advancing. The products that are derived from these technologies may not be applicable or compatible with demands in existing or future markets. Furthermore, we may not be able to identify new opportunities as they arise for products since future applications of any given product may not be readily determinable, and we cannot reasonably estimate the size of any markets that may develop. If we are not able to successfully identify new market opportunities and needs and develop new technologies, processes or products to meet those needs beyond those we currently develop, we may be unable to expand our business and will therefore be highly dependent on the revenues related to the products that can currently be produced using our process technologies.
Our failure or the failure of our industry partners to realize expected economies of scale could limit our or our partners’ ability to sell products produced using our process technologies at competitive prices, negatively impact our ability to enter into other strategic arrangements and the potential for other industry partners to adopt our process technologies, and materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.
We and our industry partners may be unable to realize expected economies of scale in connection with scale up and commercialization efforts. The failure to achieve these efficiencies or realize these expected benefits could negatively impact our or our industry partners’ ability to sell products produced using our process technologies at competitive prices, negatively impact our ability to enter into other strategic arrangements and the potential for other industry partners to adopt our process technologies, and materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.
Our microbial protein products business, which allows for the extraction of spent microbes that contain protein and other valuable nutrients which can then be used in numerous applications, may not develop as currently expected.
Microbial protein is composed of spent microbes from LanzaTech commercial facilities. These microbes are comprised of proteins and other valuable nutrients and have performed the task of gas fermentation, have been extracted from the relevant commercial unit and are no longer viable. These materials can be isolated and used in numerous applications, including feed products for livestock and fish, fertilizers for agricultural applications, and protein extract-based products. While we believe many of these markets are large and diverse, with stakeholders actively seeking sustainable and nutritious inputs, we cannot be certain that these markets will materialize or that customers will purchase our protein products in sufficient quantities. With only one commercial customer that is currently selling residual microbial protein as a component in fish and livestock feed products, this business has a
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limited commercial history. Our protein products business may not develop to the extent currently expected, which may adversely affect our business and prospects.
Natural or man-made disasters, social, economic and political instability, and other similar events may significantly disrupt our and our industry partners’ businesses, and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Our corporate headquarters are located in Skokie, Illinois and we work with industry partners in multiple other locations, including in China, Japan, India, Canada, Australia, Italy, Spain, UK, Netherlands and South Africa. These locations, in particular a number of our current and potential non-U.S. locations, may be subject to social, economic and political instability, such as social uprisings. Any of our or our industry partners’ facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, nuclear disasters, acts of terrorism or other criminal activities, the imposition or heightening of sanctions or other economic or military measures in relation to the current Russia-Ukraine conflict, infectious disease outbreaks and power outages, which may render it difficult or impossible for us or our industry partners to operate our businesses for some period of time. Our and our industry partners’ facilities would likely be costly to repair or replace, and any such efforts would likely require substantial time. Any disruptions in our or our industry partners’ operations could negatively impact our business and results of operations, and harm our reputation. Our or our industry partners’ disaster recovery plans may not be sufficient to address an actual disaster, in particular any events that negatively impact our or our industry partners’ physical infrastructures. In addition, we and our industry partners may not carry sufficient business insurance to compensate for losses that may occur. Any such losses or damages could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition, and success as an overall business.
Governmental programs designed to incentivize the production and consumption of low-carbon fuels and carbon capture and utilization, may be implemented in a way that does not include products produced using our novel technology platform and process technologies or could be repealed, curtailed or otherwise changed, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We and other participants in the biomass-based and low-carbon fuel industry rely on governmental programs requiring or incentivizing the production and consumption of fuels with lower carbon intensity than conventional fossil fuels and carbon capture and utilization. Biomass-based and low-carbon fuel has historically been more expensive to produce than petroleum-based fuel and these governmental programs support a market for biomass-based and low-carbon fuel that might not otherwise exist.
One of the most important of these programs is the Renewable Fuel Standard II (“RFS II”), a Federal law which requires that transportation fuels in the United States contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel. This program is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). The EPA’s authority includes setting annual minimum aggregate levels of consumption in four “nested” renewable fuel categories, including categories in which our fuel competes (including advanced biofuel, biomass-based diesel and cellulo biofuel). The parties obligated to comply with this renewable volume obligation (“RVO”), are petroleum refiners and petroleum fuel importers. The petroleum industry is strongly opposed to the RFS II program and can be expected to continue to press for changes both in the RFS II program itself and in the way that it is administered by the EPA. The EPA has not approved LanzaTech-derived ethanol from industrial emissions as a Renewable Identification Number (“RIN”) generating fuel (i.e., a fuel that generates credits) under the RFS II program.
The United States Congress could repeal, curtail or otherwise change the RFS II program in a manner adverse to us, such as by excluding products produced using our novel technology platform and process technologies. Similarly, the EPA could curtail or otherwise change its administration of the RFS II program in a manner adverse to us, including by not increasing or even decreasing the RVO, by waiving compliance with the RVO or otherwise. Furthermore, judicial review of the EPA’s actions, including any judicial decisions that the EPA failed to adequately evaluate the environmental impacts of RFS II, could create uncertainty in the administration of the RFS II program. In addition, while Congress specified RFS II volume requirements through 2022 (subject to adjustment in the rulemaking process), beginning in 2023 required volumes of renewable fuel will be largely at the discretion of the EPA (in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and Secretary of Agriculture), which must set the volumes after
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evaluating a set of particular statutory factors. We cannot predict what changes, if any, will be instituted or the impact of any changes on our business, although adverse changes could seriously harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (“LCFS”), is another program that provides a strong incentive for production of renewable diesel and alternative jet fuel, and fuels produced through methods involving carbon capture and utilization. The LCFS could be repealed or amended in a manner that eliminates or reduces this incentive, or could be implemented in a way that excludes or negatively affects products produced using our novel technology platform, such as by assigning a lower carbon intensity to a fuel pathway produced using a competitor’s technology.
Additionally, while the efforts of other jurisdictions to mitigate climate change are expected to result in the adoption of similar programs as the RFS II program or LCFS, increasing stakeholder scrutiny of the greenhouse gas (“GHG”), reduction benefits attributable to low-carbon fuels production and consumption could dampen interest in the adoption of similar programs. While the products produced using our process technologies generally compare favorably with conventional low-carbon fuels, public sentiment against reliance upon low-carbon fuels or carbon capture and utilization as pathways to deep decarbonization could adversely affect our market opportunities.
Any decline in the value of carbon credits or other incentives associated with products produced using our process technologies could harm our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
The value of products produced using our process technologies may be dependent on the value of carbon credits, programs relating to low-carbon materials and products standards and other similar regulatory regimes or the implicit value of decarbonized materials. The value of these credits fluctuates based on market and regulatory forces outside of our control. There is a risk that the supply of low-carbon alternative materials and products outstrips demand, resulting in the value of carbon credits declining. Any such declines could mean that the economic benefits from our industry partners’ efforts to de-carbonize their operations might not be realized. Any decline in the value of carbon credits or other incentives associated with products produced using our process technologies could harm our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition. The value of carbon credits and other incentives may also be adversely effected by legislative, agency, or judicial determinations.
We expect to rely on a limited number of industry partners for a significant portion of our near-term revenue.
We currently have agreements with a limited number of industry partners, including Suncor, IndianOil Corporation Limited (“IndianOil”), Mitsui, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. (“Sekisui”) and the Shougang Joint Venture, from which we expect to generate most of our revenues through the end of 2023. Entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest operate the three currently operating commercial scale facilities that produce low carbon ethanol using our process technology. In addition, a commercial scale facility is in advanced stages of construction by our partner ArcelorMittal. The facility is expected to begin commissioning in the coming months. The loss of one or more of our industry partners, a substantial reduction in the scope of their projects, their failure to exercise customer options, their unwillingness to extend contractual deadlines if we are unable to meet production requirements, their inability to perform under their contracts or a significant deterioration in their financial condition could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. If we fail to perform under the terms of these agreements, the industry partners could seek to terminate these agreements or pursue damages against us, including liquidated damages in certain instances, which could harm our business.
Our revenue is relatively concentrated within a small number of key customers, and the loss of one or more of such key customers may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, our largest customer accounted for 22% of our revenue. For the nine months ended September 30, 2023, our largest customer accounted for 39% of our revenue. Our customer mix can change rapidly, and we may see changes in customer concentrations in the future. If or when any of our significant customer relationships terminate for any reason, and we are not able to replace those customers and associated revenues, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected.
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We and our industry partners are subject to extensive international, national and subnational laws and regulations, and any changes in relevant laws or regulations, or failure to comply with these laws and regulations, could have a material adverse effect on our business and could substantially hinder our and our partners’ ability to manufacture and commercialize products produced using our process technologies.
We and our industry partners are subject to extensive international, national and subnational laws and regulations relating to the production of renewable fuels, the protection of the environment and in support of the ethanol industry at large. These laws, their regulatory requirements and their implementation and enforcement impact our existing and potential business operations by imposing restrictions on our and our industry partners’:
existing and proposed business operations or the need to install enhanced or additional controls;
need to obtain and comply with permits and authorizations;
liability for exceeding applicable permit limits or legal requirements;
specifications related to the ethanol and other products we or our industry partners market and produce using our process technologies;
criteria for assessing the carbon intensity and GHG emissions attributable to fuels produced using our process technologies.
In the normal course of business, we and our industry partners may be involved in administrative or legal proceedings under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (“RCRA”) in the United States, and similar environmental laws across the globe relating to the designation of certain sites for investigation or remediation with respect to environmental risks, the disposal of hazardous waste, and reduction of the hazards associated with storage, handling and transportation of the products we and our industrial partners produce. Potential consequences of these proceedings can include the need to pay for remediation of contaminated sites, the costs of which can be significant and uncertain.
Likewise, in the normal course of business, we and our industry partners may need to obtain and comply with air emissions permits pursuant to the Clean Air Act of 1963 and water discharge permits pursuant to the Clean Water Act of 1972 in the United States, and similar environmental permits and authorizations across the globe relating to air and water emissions. Potential changes to regulatory, permit and authorization standards, requirements or processes may result in uncertainty and additional costs for us and our industry partners.
Furthermore, GHG emissions are subject to environmental laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we and our industry partners have operations. Some of our and our industry partners’ operations are within jurisdictions that have or are developing regulatory regimes governing emissions of GHGs, including carbon dioxide (“CO2”). These include existing coverage under the European Union Emission Trading System, the California cap and trade scheme, India’s Performance, Achieve and Trade scheme, South Africa’s Trade Exposure and Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Regulations, the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program, China’s Emission Trading Scheme, related subnational programs and any potential expansions of these policies or related policies. In addition, the EPA requires mandatory reporting of GHG emissions and is regulating GHG emissions for new construction and major modifications to existing facilities. The EPA and California also regulate the amount of GHGs that may be emitted by new motor vehicles, including passenger cars, and new commercial airplanes. These and related regulations could be implemented and developed in ways that reduce or eliminate reliance on carbon-based fuels in transportation, for example, by hastening the widespread adoption of electricity or hydrogen as a fuel source, in lieu of low-carbon fuels, for certain categories of transportation vehicles.
Increased public concern surrounding the emission of GHGs may result in more international, national or subnational requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of GHG emissions. Although uncertain, these developments could increase the costs related to the application of our fermentation technology. Additionally, although governmental policies to reduce GHG emissions may continue to incentivize the production of low-carbon fuels and carbon capture, it is also possible that such policies could be altered in a way that may negatively impact
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our growth, increase our and our industry partners’ operating costs, or reduce demand for our technology. We cannot predict the manner or extent to which such policy or legislation may affect our industry partners and ultimately harm or help our business or the carbon capture industry in general.
Our business could be affected in the future by additional international, national and subnational regulation, pricing of GHG emissions or other climate change legislation, regulation or agreements. It is difficult at this time to estimate the likelihood of passage, or predict the potential impact, of any additional legislation, regulations or agreements. Potential consequences of new obligations could include increased technology, transportation, material, and administrative costs and may require us to make additional investments in our operations. As we continue distributing our technology to our target markets, international, national or subnational government entities may seek to impose regulations or competitors may seek to influence regulations through lobbying efforts.
Any changes in laws or regulations or failure by us or our industry partners to comply with applicable regulatory laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our reputation as well as our business, results of operations and financial condition and could substantially hinder our and our partners’ ability to manufacture and commercialize products produced using our process technologies.
Our success may be dependent on popular, government and corporate sentiment regarding the production of carbon-based fuels and chemicals and the development and deployment of carbon capture and utilization technology.
At present, we believe that popular, government and corporate sentiment largely favors the production of carbon-based fuels and chemicals and the development and deployment of carbon capture and utilization technology, which has led to many national governments’ enactment of policies and incentives that favor the production of the fuels and chemicals we manufacture and the processes we have developed to create them. However, there are a number of scientists, policy makers and other actors who believe carbon capture and utilization technologies will simply prolong the life of high-carbon sectors and impede the transition to renewable energy sources. Such individuals believe that using the carbon capture and utilization process to produce fuels, such as ethanol, simply defers the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and that anything that promotes the adoption of low-carbon fuels and advanced liquid fuels (other than hydrogen produced via electrolysis) will result in “locking in” a carbon economy from which the world should be moving away. These scientists, policy makers and other actors advocate for the adoption of regulations and incentives that would reduce or eliminate reliance on carbon-based fuels in favor of the adoption of electricity and hydrogen as fuel sources.
If scientists, policy makers and other actors are successful in convincing governments and corporations to enact policies that disfavor, or changes in government administrations result in shifts in policy that disincentivize, the production of carbon-based fuels and the development and deployment of carbon capture and utilization technology, it could negatively impact the demand for products produced using our process technologies and our ability to maintain and develop relationships with our strategic partners, which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. The viability of our business model also could be impacted if, over time, popular, government and corporate support gravitates significantly away from the use of carbon-based fuels toward the predominant use of electricity and hydrogen as fuel sources.
We and our industry partners use hazardous materials and must comply with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Any claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials or noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations could be time consuming and costly and could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We and our industry partners use hazardous chemicals and biological materials and are subject to a variety of international, national and subnational laws and regulations governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials, including RCRA and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Although we and our industry partners have implemented safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials and waste products, we cannot be sure that our safety measures are compliant with legal requirements or adequate to eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination. In the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our insurance coverage. There can be
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no assurance that neither we nor any of our industry partners will not violate environmental, health and safety laws as a result of human error, accident, equipment failure or other causes.
Compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations is expensive and time consuming, and the failure to comply with past, present or future laws or regulations could result in the imposition of fines, third-party property damage, product liability and personal injury claims, investigation and remediation costs, the suspension of production or a cessation of operations. Our liability in such an event may exceed our total assets. Liability under environmental laws can be joint and several and without regard to comparative fault. Environmental laws and regulations could become more stringent over time, imposing greater compliance costs and increasing risks and penalties associated with violations, which could impair our research, development or production efforts and harm our business. Accordingly, violations of present and future environmental laws or regulations by us or any of our industry partners could restrict our ability to develop and commercialize products using our process technologies, build out or expand facilities, or pursue certain technologies, and could require us and our industry partners to acquire equipment or incur potentially significant costs to comply with environmental regulations. In addition, our hazardous materials and environmental laws and regulations-related risks may augment as we expand our international operations, including imposition of laws and regulations impacting our ability to transfer hazardous chemicals and biological materials between countries.
We may be subject to product liability claims, which could result in material expense, diversion of management time and attention and damage to our business, reputation and brand.
The products produced using our process technologies that we and our industry partners commercialize may contain undetected defects or impurities that are not discovered until after the products have been used by customers or incorporated into products for end-users. This could result in claims from customers or others, damage to our business and reputation and brand or significant costs to correct the defect or impurity. Therefore, the sale of products produced using our process technologies entails the risk of product liability claims. Any product liability claim brought against us, regardless of its merit, could result in material expense, diversion of management time and attention, damage to our business, reputation and brand and cause us to fail to retain existing industry partners or to fail to attract new industry partners.
Ethical, legal and social concerns about genetically engineered products and process technologies that use genetically engineered supplies could limit or prevent the use of products produced using our process technologies and could limit our revenues.
The use of genetically engineered products and process technologies that use genetically engineered supplies is subject to laws and regulations in many countries, including by the EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, some of which are new or still evolving. Public attitudes about the safety and environmental hazards of genetically engineered products and processes, and ethical concerns over genetic research, could influence public acceptance of our technology, processes and products produced using our process technologies that use genetically engineered supplies.
Our ability to develop and commercialize one or more of our technologies or process technologies could be limited by additional factors, including:
public attitudes regarding, and potential changes to laws governing, ownership of genetic material, which could harm our intellectual property rights with respect to our genetic material and discourage others from supporting, developing or commercializing products produced using our process technologies; and
governmental reaction to negative publicity concerning genetically engineered organisms, which could result in greater government regulation of genetic research, greater government regulation of genetic-related feedstock sources, or other adverse governmental regulatory restrictions.
The subject of genetically engineered organisms has received negative publicity, which has aroused public debate. This adverse publicity could lead to greater regulation and trade restrictions on imports of genetically engineered products. These trends could result in increased expenses, delays or other impediments to our programs or the public acceptance and commercialization of the products produced using our process technologies.
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Our genetically engineered microbes may be subject to regulatory scrutiny and may face future development and regulatory difficulties. Additionally, failure to obtain import permits for all relevant microbes in jurisdictions with our industry partners could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Some of our genetically engineered microbes may have significantly altered characteristics compared to those found in the wild and may be subject to regulatory scrutiny. As a result, we may be required to implement additional costly measures to obtain and maintain our regulatory permits, licenses, authorizations and approvals. To the extent such regulatory scrutiny or changes impact our ability to execute on existing or new programs for our industry partners, or make doing so more costly or difficult, our business, financial condition, or results of operations may be adversely affected.
Because the use of genetically engineered products and process technologies that use genetically engineered supplies is subject to laws and regulations in many countries, some of which are new or still evolving, regulatory requirements, including those related to import permits, may continue to change in various jurisdictions. If such regulatory requirements prevent us from obtaining import permits for jurisdictions where we have industry partners, such changes may impact our ability to execute on existing or new programs for our industry partners, or make doing so more costly or difficult, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, market share and prospects.
Our government grants are subject to uncertainty, which could harm our business and results of operations.
We have sought and may continue to seek to obtain government grants in the future to offset a portion of the costs of our research and development, commercialization and other activities. We cannot be certain that we will be able to secure any such government grants in a timely fashion, or at all. Moreover, any of our existing grants or new grants that we may obtain may be terminated, modified or recovered by the granting governmental body. If such grant funding is discontinued, our revenue and cash received from grants will decrease. If we do not receive grants we are counting on, our liquidity will be impacted, which will impact our ability to grow or maintain our business.
We may also be subject to additional regulations and audits by government agencies as part of routine audits of our activities funded by our government grants. As part of an audit, these agencies may review our performance, cost structures and compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. Funds available under grants must be applied by us toward the research and development programs specified by the granting agencies, rather than for all of our programs generally. If any of our costs are found to be allocated improperly, the costs may not be reimbursed and any costs already reimbursed may have to be refunded. Accordingly, an audit could result in an adjustment to our revenues and results of operations.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention, and the increases in legal, accounting and compliance expenses that will result from being a public company may be greater than we anticipate.
As a result of the Business Combination, we have become a public company, and as such, we have and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are also required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as the rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the listing standards of Nasdaq, including changes in corporate governance practices and the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls. Compliance with these rules and regulations can be burdensome. Our management and other personnel have recently devoted and will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our historical legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance than we obtained as a private company, and could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of the LanzaTech Board as compared to when we were a private company. In particular, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We are hiring additional accounting and financial staff, and engaging outside
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consultants, all with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and maintaining an internal audit function, which will increase our operating expenses. Moreover, we could incur additional compensation costs in the event that we decide to pay cash compensation closer to that of other public companies, which would increase our general and administrative expenses and could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers and directors have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company following the Business Combination. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities, which will result in less time being devoted to our management and growth. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase our operating costs in future periods.
If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems, including security breaches, or if we fail to implement new systems and software successfully, our business operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We depend on information technology systems to, among other functions, control our manufacturing processes, process orders and invoices, collect and make payments, interact with industry partners and suppliers, manage inventory and otherwise conduct our business. We also depend on these systems to respond to inquiries, contribute to our overall internal control processes, maintain records of our property, plant and equipment and record and pay amounts due to vendors and other creditors. The failure of our information technology systems or of information technology systems maintained by third parties to perform as we anticipate could disrupt our business and could result in transaction errors, processing inefficiencies and the loss of sales and industry partners. As we implement planned upgrades or changes to systems, we may also experience interruptions in service, loss of data or reduced functionality and other unforeseen material issues which could adversely impact our ability to provide quotes, take orders and otherwise run our business in a timely manner. In addition, if our new systems fail to provide accurate and increased visibility into pricing and cost structures, it may be difficult to improve or maximize our profit margins. As a result, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, cyber-attacks or security breaches could compromise our trade secrets or other confidential, business critical information, cause a disruption in our operations, or harm our reputation. Our information technology systems are subject to potential disruptions, including significant network or power outages, service disruptions or interruptions from third-party information technology service providers, software or hardware errors, cyberattacks, computer viruses, malware, ransomware events, other malicious codes and/or unauthorized access attempts, denial-of-service attacks, phishing schemes, fraud, or other disruptive problems, any of which, if successful, could result in data leaks or otherwise compromise our confidential or proprietary information and disrupt our operations. Despite our efforts to protect sensitive information and comply with and implement data security measures, there can be no assurance that any controls and procedures that we have in place will be sufficient to protect us. Further, as cyber threats are continually evolving, our controls and procedures may become inadequate and we may be required to devote additional resources to modify or enhance our systems in the future. We may also be required to expend resources to monitor for and remediate cyber-related incidents or to enhance and strengthen our cyber security, including by deployment of additional personnel and technical protection measures, further training of employees, changing vendor control and monitoring practices, and engaging third-party experts and consultants. Any such disruptions to our information technology systems, breaches or compromises of data, or misappropriation of information could result in violation of privacy and other laws, litigation, fines, negative publicity, lost sales or business delays, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
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International sales by us and our industry partners expose us and our industry partners to the risk of fluctuation in currency exchange rates and rates of foreign inflation, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Because we and our industry partners commercialize and sell products produced using our process technologies outside of the United States, a portion of our and our industry partners’ revenues is generated outside of the United States and we derive some of our revenues from our industry partners in their local currencies. As a result, our revenues and results of operations are subject to foreign exchange fluctuations, which we may not be able to manage successfully. We bear the risk that the rate of inflation in the foreign countries where we and our industry partners incur costs and expenses or the decline in value of the U.S. dollar compared to those foreign currencies, will increase our costs as expressed in U.S. dollars. The prices of the products produced using our process technologies may not be adjusted to offset the effects of inflation on our or our industry partners’ cost structure, which could increase costs and reduce net operating margins. If we do not successfully manage these risks through hedging or other mechanisms, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Changes in interest rates and capital availability may impact investment and financing decisions by our industry partners, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We depend on partnering, licensing, and contractual relationships with our industry partners that implement our process technologies, as well as investments by such partners, as a significant source of financing. Changes in credit and capital market conditions, including changes in interest rates and capital availability, may increase the cost of financing for our industry partners, which may limit their ability or willingness to enter into partnering agreements with us or to further invest in their facilities that implement our process technologies. Such changes may also make it more difficult for us to obtain favorable terms for any future partnership arrangements. To the extent that these changes impact investment and financing decisions by our industry partners in a manner that is adverse to us, such changes could adversely affect our results of operations.
Any failure by us to manage acquisitions and other significant transactions successfully may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
From time to time, we may consider opportunities to acquire other companies, products or technologies that may enhance our capabilities, expand the breadth of our markets or partner base, or advance our business strategies. Potential acquisitions involve numerous risks, including: problems assimilating the acquired service offerings, products or technologies, issues maintaining uniform standards, procedures, quality control and policies, unanticipated costs associated with acquisitions, diversion of management’s attention from our existing business, risks associated with entering new markets in which we have limited or no experience, increased legal and accounting costs relating to the acquisitions or compliance with regulatory matters, and unanticipated or undisclosed liabilities of any target.
We have no current commitments with respect to any acquisition. We do not know if we will be able to identify acquisitions we deem suitable, whether we will be able to successfully complete any such acquisitions on favorable terms or at all, or whether we will be able to successfully integrate any acquired service offerings, products or technologies. Our potential inability to manage acquisitions and other significant transactions successfully or to integrate any acquired business, products or technologies effectively may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We believe our company culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow and, in particular, become a public company, our business could be harmed.
We believe that our culture has contributed to our success to date. We have invested in building a strong corporate culture and believe it is one of our most important and sustainable sources of competitive advantage. Our corporate culture is team-oriented, community-based and rooted in company values to promote close alignment between employees throughout the organization. Community strengthening events and team activities encourage cross-team and cross-location interactions. This foundation promotes an understanding of our organizational values and ensures that our team members stand for and contribute to the vision and objectives of the company. Any failure to maintain our culture could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, which is critical to our growth, and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. In addition, as we develop the systems and
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processes associated with being a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our culture. Furthermore, as we grow and evolve on an international scale, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain these beneficial aspects of our corporate culture throughout our global footprint. If we fail to maintain our corporate culture, or if we are unable to retain or hire key personnel that contribute positively to our corporate culture, our business and competitive position may be harmed.
Causes of supply chain challenges could result in delays or increased costs for us and our partners deploying our technologies.
The products that we and our partners produce using our process technologies must be delivered to our industry partners and involve a variety of inputs which must be procured and delivered to our facilities. Our suppliers, sub-contractors and industry partners have been disrupted by certain issues, including worker absenteeism, quarantines, restrictions on employees’ ability to work, office and factory closures, disruptions to ports and other shipping infrastructure, border closures or other travel or health-related restrictions. Supply chain disruptions may also occur from time to time due to a range of factors beyond our control, including, but not limited to, climate change, increased costs of labor, freight costs and raw material prices along with a shortage of qualified workers. Such issues may cause delays in the delivery of, or increases in the cost of, the inputs used in our process technologies, potentially resulting in delays or increased costs for us and our partners deploying our technologies or for our industry partners purchasing our products, which may materially impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We and our industry partners have a limited operating history utilizing our technology and different feedstocks, which may make it difficult to evaluate our future viability and predict our future performance.
We and our partners have a limited operating history utilizing our process technologies and different feed stocks on which to base an evaluation of our business and prospects. Our operating results are not predictable and our historical results may not be indicative of our future results. Few peer companies with our business model exist and none have yet established long-term track records at scale that might assist us in predicting whether our business model and strategy can be implemented and sustained over an extended period of time. It may be difficult for you to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies implementing a similar business model. We may encounter unanticipated problems as we continue to refine our business model and process technologies, and may be forced to make significant changes to our anticipated sales and revenue models to compete with our competitors’ offerings, which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
We have not yet generated material revenues from marketing of CarbonSmart products and our revenue forecast must be considered in light of the uncertainty and risks frequently encountered by companies in their early stage of development.
We have not yet generated material revenues from marketing CarbonSmart products or the sale of our equipment. We are subject to the risks inherent to early-stage companies seeking to develop, market and distribute new products, particularly companies in evolving markets such as renewable energy and technology. The likelihood of our success must be considered in light of the problems, expenses, difficulties, complications and delays frequently encountered in connection with the development, introduction, marketing and distribution of new products in a competitive environment.
Such risks include dependence on the success and acceptance of our products, the ability to attract and retain a suitable partner base, and the management of growth. To address these risks, we must, among other things, further develop and enhance our process technologies, generate increased demand for our products, attract a sufficient partner base, collaborate with partners, respond to competitive developments, and attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel. We are thus subject to many of the risks common to companies in their early stage of development, including under-capitalization, cash shortages, limitations with respect to personnel, financial, and other resources and lack of revenues.
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Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
We have incurred losses during our history. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of September 30, 2023, we had approximately $318 million in U.S. federal net operating loss carryovers to offset future taxable income.
Under the Tax Act (as defined below), as modified by the CARES Act (as defined below), U.S. federal NOL carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
In addition, our NOL carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in the ownership of our stock. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership (as measured by value) by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with our migration from New Zealand to the United States, the Business Combination or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We have not yet determined the amount of the cumulative change in our ownership resulting from the Business Combination or other transactions, or any resulting limitations on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future income tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected. We have recorded a valuation allowance related to our NOL carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
Changes in U.S. and foreign tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, results of operations or financial conditions.
The tax regimes we are subject to or operate under, including income and non-income taxes, are unsettled and may be subject to significant change. Changes in tax laws, regulations, or rulings, or changes in interpretations of existing laws and regulations, could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. For example, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or Tax Act, made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including changes to U.S. federal tax rates, additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, both positive and negative changes to the utilization of future NOL carryforwards, and allowing for the expensing of certain capital expenditures. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, has already modified certain provisions of the Tax Act and the United States Congress is considering new proposed tax legislation. The exact impact of the Tax Act and the CARES Act for future years is difficult to quantify, but these changes could materially affect our effective tax rate in future periods, in addition to any changes made by new tax legislation.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been working on a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project and is expected to continue to issue guidelines and proposals that may change various aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined in many of the countries in which we do business. Similarly, the European Commission and several countries have issued proposals that would change various aspects of the current tax framework under which we are taxed. These proposals include changes to the existing framework to calculate income tax, as well as proposals to change or impose new types of non-income taxes, including taxes based on a percentage of revenue.
As we expand the scale of our international business activities, these types of changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate, increase the amount of taxes imposed on our business, and harm our financial position. Such changes may also apply retroactively to our historical operations and result in taxes greater than the amounts estimated and recorded in our financial statements.
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Political and economic uncertainty, including changes in policies of the Chinese government or in relations between China and the United States, may impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We and our partners operate facilities and do business on an international scale, including in China. Political and economic uncertainty, including changes in policies of the Chinese government or relations between China and the United States, may impact us adversely. There is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between China and the United States with respect to trade policy, government relations and treaties. Political uncertainty surrounding Chinese government policies, international trade disputes between China and the United States, and protectionist measures could result in increased trade controls and regulations. Heightened tensions resulting in restrictions and additional regulations may negatively impact our ability to send our microbes and other supplies to our plants in China, to purchase and ship ethanol out of China, or to gain ethanol-related licenses in China.
The implementation of sanctions on certain Chinese individuals or entities may result in complications for our interactions with LanzaTech China Limited, the Shougang Joint Venture and our joint venture partners in China, or with certain of our strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec. Sinopec is a Chinese investment platform that was jointly established in 2018 by China Petrochemical Corporation (“Sinopec Group”) and China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (“Sinopec Corp”). Sinopec Corp is a majority-owned subsidiary of Sinopec Group, which is controlled by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. Based on publicly available information provided by China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, as of August 2022, the China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation holds, directly or indirectly, 49% of the equity/voting rights of Sinopec. As a result of potential trade and investment restrictions, we may be unable to complete an investment in any joint venture that we may enter into with Sinopec, or to protect our interests in our existing or potential future joint ventures by nominating a non-Chinese director to the board of directors of any such joint venture. Sanctions also may negatively impact our ability to repatriate dividends from a Chinese joint venture and may result in further costs or delays as a result of currency controls. These increased costs and restrictions may reduce our margins or reduce demand for our products if prices increase for our industry partners, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ability or the ability of our partners to operate in China may be impaired by changes in Chinese laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulation, restrictions on foreign investment, and other matters, which can change quickly with little advance notice.
While we are headquartered in Skokie, Illinois, we have business operations in China. This includes a minority ownership stake in the Shougang Joint Venture, several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec, and a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at a LanzaTech office in Shanghai, which support the ongoing operations and further growth of the business in China. We license our technology in China to the Shougang Joint Venture. Entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest currently produce low carbon ethanol at three commercial scale facilities using our process technology, which, in addition to its use as fuel, is transported and processed for use in consumer products.
The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. The central Chinese government or local governments having jurisdiction within China may impose new, stricter regulations, or interpretations of existing regulations, that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. For example, regulations in the PRC applicable to LanzaTech China Limited, a WFOE, may change. As such, our operations and the operations of our joint venture partners and our sales and licenses to partners located in China may be subject to governmental and regulatory interference in the provinces in which they operate. We, our joint venture and other partners could also be subject to regulation by various political and regulatory entities, including local and municipal agencies and other governmental subdivisions. Regulations may be imposed or change quickly with little advance notice. Our ability, and the ability of our joint venture and other partners, to operate in China may be impaired by any such laws or regulations, or any changes in laws and regulations in China. We and our joint venture and other partners may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and future laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply.
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Our operations and financial results may be impacted if the PRC government determines that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the Shougang Joint Venture VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future.
We have business operations in China, several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec, and a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at a LanzaTech office in Shanghai, which support the ongoing operations and further growth of the business in China. We also hold a minority ownership stake in the Shougang Joint Venture. We have determined the Shougang Joint Venture to be a VIE for which we are not the primary beneficiary. The VIE structure was implemented in order to effectuate the intellectual property licensing arrangement between us and the Shougang Joint Venture and is not used to provide investors with exposure to foreign investment in China-based companies where Chinese law prohibits direct foreign investment in the operating companies. If the PRC government determines that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, it could result in a material change to our operations. This could result in our inability to assert contractual control over our intellectual property and other assets in the Shougang Joint Venture, or cause a material change in the value of the shares of the common stock.
We and our partners may be subject to regulatory actions by the Chinese government targeting concerns related to data security and monopolistic behavior.
Recent statements and regulatory actions by the Chinese government have targeted companies whose operations involves cross-border data security or anti-monopoly concerns. Although we are incorporated and headquartered in the United States, we may still be subject to certain PRC laws due to our business operations in China. These operations include several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec, a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at our office in Shanghai, and our minority ownership stake in, and contractual commitments with, the Shougang Joint Venture.
On June 10, 2021, China promulgated the PRC Data Security Law (the “DSL”), which became effective on September 1, 2021. The DSL intends to regulate data processing activities, ensure data security, promote data development and utilization, protect the data-related rights and interests of individuals and organizations, and safeguard Chinese sovereignty, security and development interests. Article 36 of the DSL provides that any Chinese entity that provides data to foreign judicial or law enforcement agencies (regardless of whether directly or through a foreign entity) without approval from a Chinese authority would likely be deemed to be in violation of the DSL. In addition, pursuant to Article 2 of Measures for Cybersecurity Reviews (the “Measures”) issued by the CAC, the procurement of any network product or service by an operator of critical information infrastructure that affects or may affect national security will be subjected to a cybersecurity review. Pursuant to Article 35 of Cybersecurity Law of the PRC, “critical information infrastructure operators” that purchase network products and services which may influence national security will be subject to cybersecurity review by the CAC. With respect to LanzaTech China Limited, the Shougang Joint Venture and our operational partners in China, the exact scope of the term “critical information infrastructure operator” remains unclear, so there can be no assurance that we, the Shougang Joint Venture or our partners will not be subjected to critical information infrastructure operator review in the future. Furthermore, in the event that we, the Shougang Joint Venture or our partners become operators of critical information infrastructure in the future, they may be subject to the DSL, the Measures and cybersecurity review by the CAC.
Article 3 of Anti-Monopoly Law of the PRC (the “Anti-Monopoly Law”) prohibits “monopolistic practices,” which include: (a) the conclusion of monopoly agreements between operators; (b) the abuse of dominant market position by operators; and (c) concentration of undertakings which has or may have the effect of eliminating or restricting market competition. Furthermore, according to Article 19 of the Anti-Monopoly Law, the operator will be assumed to have a dominant market position if the following apply: (a) an operator has 50% or higher market share in a relevant market; (b) two operators have 66% or higher market share in a relevant market; or (c) three operators have 75% or higher market share in a relevant market. We believe that neither we nor any of our partners in China have engaged in any monopolistic practices in China, and that recent statements and regulatory actions by the Chinese government do not impact our ability to conduct business, accept foreign investments, or list on a U.S. or other foreign stock exchange. However, there can be no assurance that regulators in China will not promulgate new
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laws and regulations or adopt new series of interpretations or regulatory actions which may require us and our partners to satisfy new requirements related to these concerns.
Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or legal system or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
Our business operations in China include the Shougang Joint Venture, several strategic investors located in China, including Sinopec, and a core team of technical, business and administrative professionals at a LanzaTech office in Shanghai, which support the ongoing operations and further growth of the business in China. We license our technology in China to the Shougang Joint Venture. Entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest currently produce low carbon ethanol at three commercial scale facilities using our process technology, which, in addition to its use as fuel, is transported and processed for use in consumer products. Meanwhile, several additional facilities are being engineered and constructed. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by the significant discretion of Chinese governmental authorities. The Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. The increased global focus on environmental and social issues and China’s potential adoption of more stringent standards in these areas may adversely impact us or our suppliers.
Furthermore, the Chinese legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we or our suppliers may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the alleged violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Further, such evolving laws and regulations and the inconsistent enforcement thereof could also lead to failure to obtain or maintain licenses and permits to do business in China, which would adversely affect us or our suppliers in China. Any such disruption, or if one or more of our Chinese suppliers was prevented from operating, could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be subject to risks that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time.
Because we have employees located in China and conduct some operations in China, including through our China-based joint venture and at the facilities in China operated by entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest using our process technology, we are subject to the risk that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time. However, because our operations in China are largely limited to technology licenses and the production of our low carbon ethanol, we do not expect that such intervention or influence would result in a material change in our operations. Nonetheless, in the event that the Chinese government were to intervene in our operations, we might experience a disruption at the three facilities in China operated by entities in which the Shougang Joint Venture holds a controlling interest using our process technology, or at the facilities in construction, to our joint venture and joint venture partners, to our licenses to partners in China and to our low carbon ethanol production, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Products produced by our process technologies compete with or are intended to displace comparable products produced using fossil resources. The market prices for these alternatively produced products and commodities are subject to volatility and there is a limited referenceable market for the more sustainable, waste-based products that our process technologies enable.
Products produced by our process technologies compete with or are intended to displace comparable products produced using fossil resources. The market prices for these alternatively produced products and commodities are subject to volatility and may depend on uncertain consumer demand as well as changing supply of feedstocks. In particular, demand for our products may depend on changing attitudes toward, and the price and availability of, fossil resources.
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We do not believe we have any direct competitors that produce products with similar attributes to ours. Due to the limited competition we face, there is a limited referenceable market for the more sustainable, waste-based products that our process technologies enable. It may be difficult to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies developing similar sustainable, waste-based products.
Process performance at LanzaTech plants is dependent on the quality and quantity of the feedstock supplied from the host facility.
We design the parameters to best process the feedstock we expect to receive from the host facility. Although we rigorously test feedgas when a project is being designed in order to determine the expected composition of the feedstock there is no guarantee that the quality and quantity of the feedstock will be identical to the test conditions. Feedstock changes based on day-to-day variability in host company process conditions can be anticipated to some extent, but cannot be fully mitigated.
We have experienced variability in the quality and quantity of feedstock supplied from our operating facilities, and although it is typically in the facilities’ best interest to provide consistent and good quality feedstock, which help maintain the high utilization of our process, there is no guarantee that it will be supplied.
The deployment of the technology for alternative waste gas feedstocks can lead to unforeseen issues due to the change in the upstream industrial process.
While we have designed our reactor and process to minimize the amount of mechanical and operational adjustments required for the utilization of different waste gas feedstocks, there is no guarantee that performance will be as expected. Our microbe has proven to be flexible to different feed gas compositions, with tests conducted at pilot-scale using a wide range of CO2, hydrogen (“H2”) and carbon monoxide (“CO”)-containing gases.
Scale-up and commercialization of process technologies for alternative feedstocks without first conducting tests at demonstration scale can introduce some risk. Performance related improvements may not be as fungible as anticipated in scaling up alternative feedstocks.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Our patent rights may not provide commercially meaningful protection against competition, and we may be unable to detect infringement of our patents.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection and other intellectual property rights to protect our technology from competition. We have adopted a strategy of seeking patents and patent licenses in the United States and in certain foreign countries with respect to certain technologies used in, or relating to, our process technology for developing products. As of September 15, 2023, our overall owned and in-licensed patent portfolio included 1,453 granted patents and 615 pending patent applications across 149 patent families in the United States and in various foreign jurisdictions.
The strength of patents involves complex legal and scientific questions and can be uncertain. The patent applications that we own or license may fail to result in issued patents in the United States or in other foreign countries. Even with regard to the patents that have been issued to us, it is possible that third parties could challenge the validity, enforceability, ownership or scope thereof, which could result in such patents being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable. There is a substantial amount of litigation involving patent and other intellectual property rights, including interference and reexamination proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or oppositions or comparable proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our technology or prevent others from designing around our patent claims. In addition, patent laws may change over time, and such changes may impair our ability to maintain, protect or enforce our patents. Moreover, we may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our patents rights against third parties. For example, third parties could practice our inventions without authorization, in secret and in territories where we do not have patent protection. Furthermore, despite our efforts and precautions, we may be unable to prevent a third party from copying or otherwise obtaining
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and using our inventions or other proprietary information or technology without authorization, or from infringing our patents. Such third parties may then try to sell or import products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other territories. We may be unable to prove that such products were made using our inventions, and any legal and contractual remedies available to us may not adequately compensate us.
Additional uncertainty may result from patent reform legislation proposed by the U.S. Congress and other national governments and from legal precedent handed down by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, the U.S. Supreme Court and the courts of foreign countries, as they determine legal issues concerning the scope, validity and construction of patent claims. Because patent applications in the United States and many foreign jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all, and because publication of discoveries in the scientific literature often lags behind the actual discoveries, there is additional uncertainty as to validity of any issued patent. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that any of our patent applications will result in issued patents, or even if issued, be sure of their validity or enforceability. Additionally we cannot predict whether any of our patent rights will be broad enough in scope to provide commercial advantage and prevent circumvention. Also, it may be difficult for us to trace chemicals imported into the United States that are produced by others using microorganisms or processes covered by our patents without our authorization, which will limit our ability to enforce our patent rights against potential infringers. In any event, patents are enforceable only for a limited term.
Differences and uncertainties with respect to legal systems outside the United States could adversely affect the legal protection available to us.
We have and plan to continue partnering with others in building manufacturing facilities using our process technologies in countries other than the United States. However, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems, including delays, in protecting and enforcing intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to bio-industrial technologies. This could make it difficult for us to stop the misappropriation of our trade secrets or the infringement of our patents or other intellectual property rights. Proceedings to enforce our patents and other proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Such proceedings could also be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity, enforceability, ownership and scope of our intellectual property rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights in such countries could be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop. Moreover, the registration of intellectual property is costly and subject to complex rules, regulations and local laws. Outside the United States, we only file our patent applications in selected foreign jurisdictions and therefore will have no patent protection against potential infringers in jurisdictions where we have not applied for patent protection.
We may not be able to operate our business without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties.
Our ability and the ability of our partners to commercialize the products produced using our technology platform depends on the ability to develop, manufacture, market and sell such products without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. Numerous U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties, including parties with whom we may compete, exist in fields including processes that relate to our technology platform and the processes derived using our technology platform. These third parties may allege that our technology platform or the processes derived using our technology platform, or even the methods and organisms themselves, infringe their intellectual property rights, and we may be subject to legal proceedings relating to these claims.
If we are found to infringe the intellectual property rights of a third party, we or our partners could be prohibited from commercializing the product produced using the infringing technology, or from licensing our technology, unless we obtain a license to use the technology covered by the third-party intellectual property rights or are able to design around the relevant third party intellectual property rights. We may be unable to obtain a license on terms
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acceptable to us, if at all, and we may not be able to redesign our technology or processes to avoid infringement. Even if we are able to redesign technology or processes to avoid an infringement claim, our efforts to design around the third-party intellectual property rights may lead to a less effective or more costly product. In addition, we may be subject to legal proceedings alleging the infringement, misappropriation or other violation of the intellectual property of third parties, which could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. A court could also order us to pay compensatory damages for any infringement, plus prejudgment interest and could, in addition, treble the compensatory damages and award attorney fees. These damages could be substantial and could harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. A court also could enter orders that temporarily, preliminarily or permanently prohibit us and our partners from making, using, selling or offering to sell one or more of the products that may be produced using our technology platform and processes, or could enter an order mandating that we undertake certain remedial activities.
Trade secrets can be difficult to protect and enforce, and our inability to do so could adversely affect our competitive position.
We rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect some of our technology and proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce, and any other elements of our technology platform that involve proprietary know-how, information or technology that is not covered by patents, particularly where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to maintain and protect. Our strategy for scale-up of production requires us to share confidential information with our business partners and other parties. Our business partners’ employees, consultants, contractors or scientific and other advisors may unintentionally or willfully disclose our proprietary information to competitors. Enforcement of claims that a third party has illegally obtained and is using trade secrets is an expensive, time-consuming and uncertain process. In addition, foreign courts are sometimes less willing than U.S. courts to protect trade secrets. If our competitors independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how, we would not be able to assert our trade secrets against them. Our failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
We have taken measures to protect our trade secrets and proprietary information, but these measures may not be effective. We require new employees and consultants to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of an employment or consulting arrangement with us. These agreements generally require that all confidential information developed by the individual or made known to the individual by us during the course of the individual’s relationship with us be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties. Nevertheless, our proprietary information may be disclosed, third parties could reverse engineer our systems, and others may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
If trade secrets are stolen, misappropriated or reverse engineered, others could use these designs to produce competing products.
A number of third parties, including various industry partners, plant operators, university scientists and researchers, and those involved in the shipping and handling of products produced using our technology platform, have or may have access in the future to our proprietary technology. If the proprietary technology covered by our trade secrets were stolen, misappropriated or reverse engineered based on unauthorized use or based on extrapolation from our disclosures in our patent applications, it could be used by other parties for their own commercial gain. If this were to occur, it could be difficult, time consuming and costly for us to discover or challenge this type of use, especially in countries with limited intellectual property protection.
If we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks or otherwise violating our trademark rights, our business could be materially adversely affected.
We currently hold issued trademark registrations and have trademark applications pending, any of which may be the subject of a governmental or third-party objection, which could prevent the issuance or maintenance of the
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same and thus create the potential need to rebrand or relabel one or more of our services. As our business matures, our reliance on our trademarks to differentiate us from our competitors increases and as a result, if we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks, trade dress, or other source indicators that infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our trademark rights, our business could be materially adversely affected.
We may not retain exclusive rights to intellectual property created as a result of our strategic partnering arrangements which could limit our prospects and result in costly and time-consuming disputes.
We are a party to joint development agreements with a number of parties and are seeking to enter into agreements with others, each of which involve research and development efforts. We expect to enter into additional strategic partnering arrangements in the future. Under our existing agreements, we share, and would share, to various degrees, intellectual property we jointly develop. Any disputes as to ownership with a partner that may arise could encumber or prevent our use of the disputed technology, could harm our relationship with the relevant partner and would likely negatively affect our commercialization plans with respect to that technology. Additionally, litigation may be necessary to resolve disputes as to the ownership of intellectual property rights as between us and our industry partners, which can be costly, distracting to management and can harm our reputation and the value of our company. Further, we may not be successful in defending our intellectual property rights in any such litigation, and if we are unsuccessful, the value of our company could be seriously harmed.
Some of our intellectual property may be subject to federal regulation such as “march-in” rights, reporting requirements and a preference for U.S. industry, and any such regulations could negatively impact our business and prospects.
Some of the intellectual property that protects our technology platform has been funded by grants from U.S. government agencies and is subject to certain federal regulations. For example, under the “march-in” provisions of the Bayh-Dole Act, the government may have the right under limited circumstances to require us to grant exclusive, partially exclusive or non-exclusive rights to third parties under any intellectual property discovered through the government-funded programs. March-in rights can be triggered if the government determines that we have failed to work sufficiently towards achieving practical application of a technology or if action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements for public use specified by federal regulations or to give preference to U.S. industry. Specifically, certain of our granted and pending patents that cover recombinant and other microorganisms, cell-free protein synthesis platforms, protein expression vectors, fermentative production pathways, and microbial and ethanol conversion pathways may be subject to march-in-rights. These patents account for less than one percent of our granted and pending patents. We are also subject to certain reporting requirements as well as a preference for U.S. industry relating to manufacturing of products under the Bayh-Dole Act. Any such regulations could negatively impact our business and prospects.
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control these technologies and any loss of our rights to them could prevent us from developing or selling our process technologies.
We rely on licenses in order to be able to use various proprietary technologies that are material to our business, including a license with the Battelle Memorial Institute (“Battelle”). We do not own the patents that underlie these licenses. Our rights to use the technology we license are subject to the continuation of and compliance with the terms of those licenses. We do not always control the prosecution, maintenance or filing of the patents to which we hold licenses. Thus, some of these patents and patent applications were not written by us or our attorneys, and we did not have control over their drafting and prosecution. Our licensors might not have given the same attention to the drafting and prosecution of these patents and applications as we would have if we had been the owners of the patents and applications and had control over the drafting and prosecution. We cannot be certain that drafting or prosecution of the licensed patents and patent applications by the licensors have been or will be conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations or will result in valid and enforceable patents and other intellectual property rights.
Our rights to use the technology we license are subject to the validity of the owners’ intellectual property rights. Enforcement of our licensed patents or defense or any claims asserting the invalidity of these patents is often subject to the control or cooperation of our licensors and/or interpretation of the license agreements. We cannot be certain that we will have control of the enforcement of these patents against third parties. Legal action could be initiated
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against the owners of the intellectual property that we license. Even if we are not a party to these legal actions, an adverse outcome could harm our business because it might prevent our licensors from continuing to license the intellectual property that we may need to operate our business.
Certain of our licenses contain provisions that allow the licensor to terminate the license upon specific conditions, including breach or insolvency. Our rights under the licenses are subject to our continued compliance with the terms of the license, including the payment of royalties due under the license. Termination of these licenses could prevent us from developing or marketing some or all of our process technologies. Because of the complexity of our technologies underlying our process technologies and the patents we have licensed, determining the scope of the license and related royalty obligation can be difficult and can lead to disputes between us and the licensor. An unfavorable resolution of such a dispute could lead to an increase in the royalties payable pursuant to the license. If a licensor believed we were not paying the royalties due under the license or were otherwise not in compliance with the terms of the license, the licensor might attempt to revoke the license. If such an attempt were successful, we might be barred from developing and selling some or all of our process technologies.
Any strategic partnering arrangement that involves the licensing of any of our intellectual property may increase our risks, harm our competitive position and increase our costs.
In addition to partnering with industry leaders through our co-development model, we may enter into licensing arrangements aimed to accelerate commercialization of our production process pipeline. Licensing any of our intellectual property increases the number of people who have access to some of our proprietary information. The scope of any such license may not be sufficiently narrow to adequately protect our interests. Moreover, contractual obligations of our licensees not to disclose or misuse our intellectual property may not be sufficient to prevent such disclosure or misuse. The costs of enforcing contractual rights could substantially increase our operating costs and may not be cost-effective, reasonable under the circumstances or ultimately succeed in protecting our proprietary rights. If our competitors access our intellectual property, they may gain further insight into the technology and design of our process technologies, which would harm our competitive position.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, or lawsuits asserted by a third party, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.
Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensors. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may need to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours or our licensors is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing.
Interference proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents or patent applications or those of our collaborators or licensors. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms. Litigation or interference proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. We may not be able to prevent, alone or with our licensors, misappropriation of our proprietary rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect those rights as fully as in the United States.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments.
Because of the uncertainties involved in the issuance and enforcement of patents, and the value of a patent, patent disputes and litigations are common. We may become involved in patent disputes relating to infringement of our technology, with third-parties asserting their patents, with our licensors or licensees, with industry partners and
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with employees, among others. Patent disputes can take years to resolve, can be very costly and can result in loss of rights, injunctions and substantial penalties. Moreover, patent disputes and related proceedings can distract management’s attention and interfere with running the business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
The price of the common stock may be volatile.
Following the Business Combination, fluctuations in the price of New LanzaTech’s securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Prior to the Business Combination, there was not a public market for the stock of LanzaTech and trading in the shares of AMCI’s common stock was not active. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of New LanzaTech securities following the Business Combination could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and New LanzaTech securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline. Factors affecting the trading price of New LanzaTech’s securities may include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about New LanzaTech’s operating results;
the development of new plants;
success of competitors;
operating results failing to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
entering into new agreements with partners;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning New LanzaTech or the industry in which New LanzaTech operates in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to New LanzaTech;
ability to market new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving New LanzaTech;
changes in New LanzaTech’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of common stock available for public sale;
any major change in New LanzaTech’s board or management;
sales of substantial amounts of common stock by our or New LanzaTech’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and Nasdaq specifically, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you
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may not be able to sell your securities at or above the price at which it was acquired. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to New LanzaTech could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
Moreover, the common stock and the common stock issuable upon exercise of the resale securities described in this prospectus represent a substantial percentage of the total outstanding shares of our common stock as of the date of this prospectus. Additionally, assuming all of the Convertible Securities were converted, the selling stockholders would own 203,436,682 shares of common stock, representing approximately 92.7% of the total outstanding common stock. So long as the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is effective, the sales of the securities being offered in this prospectus could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of the common stock.
Reports published by analysts, including projections in those reports that differ from our actual results, could adversely affect the price and trading volume of the common stock.
We expect that securities research analysts will establish and publish their own periodic projections for the business of LanzaTech. These projections may vary widely and may not accurately predict the results we actually achieve. Our stock price may decline if our actual results do not match the projections of these securities research analysts. Similarly, if one or more of the analysts who write reports on LanzaTech downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of LanzaTech or fails to publish reports on LanzaTech regularly, our stock price or trading volume could decline.
We may issue additional shares of common stock or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of the common stock.
As of December 1, 2023, we had warrants (including the AM Warrant and the Shortfall Warrants) outstanding to purchase up to an aggregate of 16,657,686 shares of common stock and options (including the Options) outstanding to purchase up to an aggregate of 14,355,066 shares of common stock. Under the LanzaTech 2023 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “2023 Plan”), we also have the ability to issue 21,716,844 shares of our common stock, and the Brookfield SAFE may convert into up to 5,000,000 shares of our common stock. The 2023 Plan is required to provide for the ability to grant and recycle the common stock (including any shares subject to forfeited options or restricted stock awards), and to initially reserve a number of shares of the common stock constituting 10% of the total number of shares of the common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis, as determined at the closing of the Business Combination, and include an “evergreen” provision pursuant to which the number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2023 Plan will be increased automatically each year by 3% of the aggregate number of shares of the common stock then outstanding on a fully diluted basis. We may also issue additional shares of common stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future in connection with, among other things, future acquisitions or repayment of outstanding indebtedness, without stockholder approval, in a number of circumstances.
Our issuance of additional shares of common stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank would have the following effects:
our existing stockholders’ proportionate ownership interest in LanzaTech will decrease;
the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease;
the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding share of common stock may be diminished; and
the market price of shares of the common stock may decline.
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Our actual financial position and results of operations may differ materially from the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus, which may not be indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the dates indicated. See the section titled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for more information.
Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on the common stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gains and you may never receive a return on your investment.
We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends as a public company in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our securities unless you sell your securities for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
The Public Warrants are identical to the Private Placement Warrants in material terms and provisions, except in certain circumstances, and are materially different from the LanzaTech warrants.
The Public Warrants are identical to the Private Placement Warrants in material terms and provisions, except that the Private Placement Warrants are not transferable, assignable or salable until 30 days after the closing of the Business Combination (except in limited circumstances) and are not redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees. If the Private Placement Warrants are held by holders other than the Sponsor or its permitted transferees, they will be redeemable by us and exercisable by the holders on the same basis as the Public Warrants. The Sponsor agreed not to transfer, assign or sell any of the Private Placement Warrants until 30 days after the closing of the business combination.
We may redeem the Public Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to holders of Public Warrants. We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Public Warrant, provided that the closing price of the common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for adjustments to the number of shares issuable upon exercise or the exercise price of a warrant) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading day period commencing once the Public Warrants become exercisable and ending three days before we send the notice of redemption to Public Warrant holders. If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise the redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. As a result, we may redeem the warrants as set forth above even if the holders are otherwise unable to exercise the warrants. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force holders of the Public Warrants (i) to exercise their Public Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for them to do so, (ii) to sell their Public Warrants at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold their Public Warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Public Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of their Public Warrants. As noted above, none of the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees.
The terms of the Legacy LanzaTech warrants that were converted into New LanzaTech warrants at the closing of the Business Combination are materially different from those of the Public Warrants. The AM Warrant entitles its holder to purchase up to 300,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price equal to $10.00, and will expire on the fifth anniversary of the consummation of the Business Combination. The Shortfall Warrants entitle the holders to purchase up to 4,083,486 shares of common stock at an exercise price equal to $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment, and will expire on March 27, 2028.
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You may only be able to exercise your Public Warrants on a “cashless basis” under certain circumstances, and if you do so, you will receive fewer shares of the common stock from such exercise than if you were to exercise such warrants for cash.
The Warrant Agreement provides that in the following circumstances holders of warrants who seek to exercise their Public Warrants will not be permitted to do so for cash and will, instead, be required to do so on a cashless basis in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act: (i) if the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants are not registered under the Securities Act in accordance with the terms of the Warrant Agreement or if the registration statement under which the warrants are registered is suspended; (ii) if we have so elected and the shares of common stock is at the time of any exercise of a warrant not listed on a national securities exchange such that they satisfy the definition of “covered securities” under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act; and (iii) if we have so elected and we call the Public Warrants for redemption. If you exercise your Public Warrants on a cashless basis, you would pay the warrant exercise price by surrendering the warrants for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “fair market value” of our shares of common stock (as defined in the next sentence) over the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” is the average closing price of the shares of the common stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of exercise is received by the warrant agent or on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants, as applicable. As a result, you would receive fewer shares of the common stock from such exercise than if you were to exercise such warrants for cash.
Our warrant agreement designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of our warrants, which could limit the ability of warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with our company.
Our warrant agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the Warrant Agreement, including under the Securities Act, will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) that we irrevocably submit to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction will be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. We will waive any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction and that such courts represent an inconvenient forum.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the Warrant Agreement will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are the sole and exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our warrants will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in our Warrant Agreement. If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope the forum provisions of the Warrant Agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of our warrants, such holder will be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such warrant holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such warrant holder.
This choice-of-forum provision may limit a warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with our company, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, or other employees and may result in increased litigation costs for our stockholders. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of the Warrant Agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
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We may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of a holder’s Public Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of shares of the common stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant could be decreased, all without the approval of that warrant holder.
Our Public Warrants were issued in registered form under the Warrant Agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Public Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Public Warrants, convert the Public Warrants into cash or stock, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant.
We and Legacy LanzaTech have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. While some of these material weaknesses have been remediated, they could continue to adversely affect our ability to report our results of operations and financial condition accurately and in a timely manner.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with US GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation of those internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
As noted previously, we have revised the accounting treatment of the FPA to reclassify the prepayment amount from being presented as a net derivative asset on our condensed consolidated balance sheet to equity and to present the FPA Put Option as a non-current liability on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, and have restated our condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the quarters ended March 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023. In connection with this determination, we have concluded that the failure of our internal controls designed to ensure appropriate accounting for complex technical arrangements like the forward purchase agreement is representative of the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.
Additionally, Legacy LanzaTech has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. During 2022, Legacy LanzaTech restated its previously issued 2020 and 2021 financial statements. The restatement resulted from certain material weaknesses. For additional information on the restatement, see Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to Legacy LanzaTech’s 2020 and 2021 restated financial statements. LanzaTech has not sufficiently designed, documented and implemented formal accounting policies, processes, and controls at the entity level or over the process of the accounting for complex transactions under U.S. GAAP.
It is possible that we may identify other material weaknesses in the future. Our management has expended, and will continue to expend, a substantial amount of effort and resources for the improvement of our internal control over financial reporting. While we have processes to properly identify and evaluate the appropriate accounting technical pronouncements and other literature for all significant or unusual transactions, we have expanded and will continue to improve these processes to ensure that the nuances of such transactions are effectively evaluated.
We can give no assurance that any measures we take, will remediate the deficiencies in internal control or that additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could
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result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements that may require us to restate our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations. As a result, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which the common stock is listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to timely file will cause us to be ineligible to utilize short form registration statements on Form S-3 or Form S-4, which may impair our ability to obtain capital in a timely fashion to execute our business strategies or issue shares to effect an acquisition. In either case, there could result a material adverse effect on our business. The existence of material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions of LanzaTech, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of the common stock. In addition, we would incur additional costs to remediate material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.
We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for future annual reports on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC, and our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
We may face litigation and other risks as a result of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.
As described elsewhere herein, we have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. As a result of such material weaknesses, the restatement, the change in accounting for the financial instruments, and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we face potential for litigation or other disputes which may include, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the restatement and material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. As of the date hereof, we have no knowledge of any such litigation or dispute. However, we can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or our ability to complete a business combination.
Delaware law and provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make a takeover proposal more difficult.
Our organizational documents are governed by Delaware law. Certain provisions of Delaware law and of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could discourage, delay, defer or prevent a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of the common stock held by our stockholders. These provisions include the ability of the Board to designate the terms of and issue new series of preference shares, supermajority voting requirements to amend certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation, the classification of the Board, and a prohibition on stockholder actions by written consent, which may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities.
These anti-takeover provisions as well as certain provisions of Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. If prospective takeovers are not consummated for any reason, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on the price of the common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions that our stockholders desire.
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Our certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings and the federal district courts as the sole and exclusive forum for other types of actions and proceedings, in each case, that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain what such stockholders believe to be a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Lus or our directors, officers or other employees or increase our stockholders’ costs in bringing such a claim.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consents to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of LanzaTech; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or employee of LanzaTech to LanzaTech or its stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against LanzaTech or any director, officer or employee arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against LanzaTech or any director, officer or employee of LanzaTech governed by the internal affairs doctrine, and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to (A) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts within Delaware and (B) service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. The provision described in the immediately preceding sentence will not apply to (i) suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction and (ii) any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, for which the federal courts will be the exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring an interest in any shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in our certificate of incorporation. These choice-of-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that he, she or it believes to be favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, or other employees and may result in increased litigation costs for our stockholders. We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce these provisions and that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for state and federal courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our certificate of incorporation inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and the Board.
Our actual financial position and results of operations may differ materially from the unaudited pro forma financial information included in this prospectus.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the dates indicated. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for more information.
There can be no assurance that our warrants, the AM Warrant or the Shortfall Warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.
Subject to adjustment, the exercise price for the outstanding Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants is $11.50 per share of common stock, the exercise price for the AM Warrant is $10.00 per share of common stock and the exercise price for the Shortfall Warrants is $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment. On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. The cash proceeds associated with the exercises of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options are dependent on the stock price inasmuch as the holders are unlikely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options, as applicable, if the exercise price thereof is greater than the price of our common stock at the time of exercise. In that circumstance, such holder may be less likely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, or the Shortfall Warrants, as
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applicable, as such holder would be selling at a loss if they exercised their Convertible Securities and sold their common stock. There can be no assurance that such warrants, the AM Warrant or the Shortfall Warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants, the AM Warrant and the Shortfall Warrants may expire worthless.
The holders of the shares of common stock registered hereby may be willing to sell their shares at a price lower than the public market price.
On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. If the market price for shares of common stock is less than $10.00 per share, holders of shares of common stock would be selling at a loss if they purchased the shares of common stock at $10.00 per share. Because certain selling stockholders purchased shares privately at a price below the current market price, or have the right to exercise Convertible Securities at an exercise price that is less than the current market price, they may have an incentive to sell shares of their common stock, or exercise their Convertible Securities and sell their common stock, because they could profit despite the market price of common stock falling below $10.00 per share. While these selling stockholders may, on average, experience a positive rate of return based on the current market price, public securityholders may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchased due to differences in the purchase prices and the current market price.
For example, the Private Placement Warrants were purchased for a price of $1.00 per warrant, and based on the closing price of the Public Warrants of $0.55 on December 14, 2023, such holder would not earn any profit from the resale of such Private Placement Warrants. The Shortfall Warrants were granted to certain selling stockholders pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement and did not have a separate purchase price and, therefore, such selling stockholder would earn a profit equal to the purchase price of the Shortfall Warrant for the resale of such Shortfall Warrant. The PIPE Shares were purchased at a price, or at the equivalent to a price, of $10.00 per share, as applicable, and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholders would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares. The exercise price of the Private Placement Warrants is $11.50 per warrant, and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholders would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares if the Private Placement Warrants were to be exercised. The shares of common stock pursuant to the Brookfield SAFE were purchased at the equivalent to a price of $10.00 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares. The shares of common stock underlying the AM Warrant have an exercise price of $10.00 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023 such selling stockholder would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares if the AM Warrant were to be exercised. Certain of the shares of common stock held by a selling stockholder were purchased pursuant to Options exercised at a price ranging from $1.38 per share to $1.60 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would earn a profit ranging from $3.65 per share to $3.87 per share for the resale of such shares. Certain other shares of common stock held by a selling stockholder were granted by Legacy LanzaTech pursuant to restricted stock units, which do not have an exercise price and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would earn a profit of $5.25 per share for the resale of such shares. The shares of common stock underlying the Options held by certain selling stockholders are exercisable at a price ranging from $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would earn a profit ranging from $2.10 per share to $5.09 per share for the resale of such shares. The shares of common stock purchased by certain selling stockholders subject to the Forward Purchase Agreement were purchased at the equivalent to a price of $10.16 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares. The shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants have an exercise price equal to $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment, and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholder would not earn any profit from the resale of such shares. The founder shares were purchased at the equivalent to a price of $0.005 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholders would earn a profit of $5.245 per share from the resale of such shares. The shares of common stock registered pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement (other than the founder’s shares) were purchased at purchase prices ranging from approximately
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$0.40 per share to $10.00 per share and, therefore, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, such selling stockholders would earn a profit ranging from $0 per share to $4.85 per share for the resale of such shares.
Sales of shares of the common stock pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part may have negative pressure on the public trading price of the common stock.
Subject to any obligations under any lock up provisions, the selling stockholders will determine the timing, pricing and rate at which they sell the warrants or shares being registered for resale on the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part into the public market. Significant sales of shares of common stock pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part may have negative pressure on the public trading price of the common stock. Assuming all of the Convertible Securities were converted, or exercised, as applicable, the selling stockholders would own 203,436,682 shares of common stock, representing approximately 92.7% of the total outstanding common stock. Also, even though the current trading price is significantly below the Company’s initial public offering price, based on the closing price of the common stock on December 14, 2023, certain private investors may have an incentive to sell their shares, because they will still profit on sales due to the lower prices at which they purchased their shares as compared to the public investors. See “— The holders of the shares of common stock registered hereby may be willing to sell their shares at a price lower than the public market price.”
We may not have the funds necessary to satisfy our future obligations under the Forward Purchase Agreement.
Pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement, on the Maturity Date the Company is obligated to pay to the Seller the Maturity Consideration, which may be paid in cash or in shares, the Share Consideration and the Prepayment Amount. However, at the time, the Company may not have sufficient funds or be able to obtain financing from third parties to pay such amounts. The Company also may not have sufficient shares authorized to pay the Maturity Consideration in shares. Breach by the Company of any of these obligations could constitute an event of default under the Forward Purchase Agreement, which could subject the Company to financial exposure thereunder (including arising from potential indemnification claims by the Seller). In addition, future debt or other contractual agreements may contain cross-default or cross-acceleration provisions that could be triggered if we defaulted on our obligations to the Seller. Any or all of these consequences could have material adverse consequences for us.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Private Placement Warrants, the Shortfall Warrants or of the common stock by the selling stockholders pursuant to this prospectus.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $188 million from the exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options for cash. To the extent that the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options will decrease. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options.
There is no assurance that the holders of the warrants, the AM Warrant, or the Shortfall Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such warrant, or that the holders of Options will elect to exercise any or all of such Options. The cash proceeds associated with the exercises of the warrants,, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants, and the Options are dependent on the stock price inasmuch as the holders are unlikely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants or the Options, as applicable, if the exercise price thereof is less than the price of our common stock at the time of exercise. In that circumstance, such holder may be less likely to exercise the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants, or the Options, as applicable, as such holder would be selling at a loss if they exercised their Convertible Securities and sold their common stock. Accordingly, we have not included the net proceeds from any exercise of the warrants, the AM Warrant, the Shortfall Warrants and the Options in our assessment of our liquidity and our ability to fund operations on a prospective basis.
Subject to adjustment, the exercise price of the warrants is $11.50 per share, the exercise price of the AM Warrant is $10.00 per share, and the exercise price of the Shortfall Warrants is $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment. Subject to adjustment, the exercise prices of the Options range from $0.16 per share to $3.15 per share. On December 14, 2023 the last reported sales price of the common stock was $5.25 per share. Additionally, if the market price for shares of common stock is less than $10.00 per share, holders of shares of common stock would be selling at a loss if they purchased the shares of common stock at $10.00 per share. Because certain selling stockholders purchased shares privately at a price below the current market price, or have the right to exercise Convertible Securities at an exercise price that is less than the current market price, they may have an incentive to sell shares of their common stock, or exercise their Convertible Securities and sell their common stock, because they could profit despite the market price of common stock falling below $10.00 per share. While these selling stockholders may, on average, experience a positive rate of return based on the current market price, public securityholders may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchased due to differences in the purchase prices and the current market price. Based on the closing price of our common stock of $5.25 on December 14, 2023, the selling stockholders would have a potential profit of up to $5.25 per share, or up to approximately $430.3 million in the aggregate (not giving effect to the issuance of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Convertible Securities held by them).
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DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE
The offering price of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the warrants of $11.50 per share. The Public Warrants are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “LNZAW.” The offering price of the shares of common stock underlying the Brookfield SAFE offered hereby is determined by reference to the conversion price of the Brookfield SAFE of $10.00 per share. The offering price of the shares of common stock underlying the AM Warrant is determined by reference to the exercise price of the AM Warrant of $10.00 per share. The offering price of the shares of common stock underlying the Shortfall Warrants is determined by reference to the exercise of the Shortfall Warrants, equal to $10.00 per share, subject to adjustment. The offering price of shares of common stock underlying the Options is determined by reference to the exercise price of the Options, which ranges between $0.16 per share and $3.15 per share.
We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of common stock, the Private Placement Warrants or the Shortfall Warrants may be sold by the selling stockholders under this prospectus.
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MARKET INFORMATION FOR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Market Information
Our common stock is currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “LNZA.” Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our common shares were listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “AMCI.” As of December 1, 2023, there were 105 holders of record of common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends on shares of common stock. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the sole discretion of our Board will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
In this section, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this section to “New LanzaTech,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and other similar terms refer to LanzaTech Global, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including LanzaTech NZ, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries subsequent to the Business Combination. References to “LanzaTech” and “Legacy LanzaTech” refer to LanzaTech NZ, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and references to “AMCI” refer to AMCI Acquisition Corp. II prior to the Business Combination.
Introduction
New LanzaTech is providing the following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information to aid you in your analysis of the financial aspects of the Business Combination.
AMCI was a blank check company formed for the purpose of entering into a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses.
The registration statement for AMCI’s IPO became effective on August 3, 2021. On August 6, 2021, AMCI consummated its IPO of 15,000,000 units. Each unit consists of one share of Class A common stock, and one-half of one redeemable warrant, each whole warrant entitling the holder thereof to purchase one share of Class A common stock for $11.50 per share. The units were sold at $10.00 per unit, generating gross proceeds to AMCI of $150.0 million, and incurring offering costs of approximately $7.3 million, inclusive of approximately $5.3 million in deferred underwriting commissions. The underwriters were granted a 45-day option from the date of the underwriting agreement (August 3, 2021) to purchase up to 2,250,000 additional units to cover over-allotments, at $10.00 per unit. On September 17, 2021, the over-allotment option expired, resulting in 562,500 founder shares that were subject to forfeiture to be forfeited.
Simultaneously with the closing of the IPO, AMCI consummated the sale of an aggregate of 3,500,000 private placement warrants at a price of $1.00 per private placement warrant, generating gross proceeds to AMCI of $3.5 million. No underwriting discounts or commissions were paid with respect to such sales.
Upon closing of the IPO and sale of private placement warrants, $150.0 million was placed in the trust account established in connection with the IPO (“Trust Account”).
AMCI had 24 months from the closing of the IPO (by August 6, 2023) to complete an initial business combination.
LanzaTech was founded in 2005 in New Zealand and is headquartered today in Chicago, Illinois. LanzaTech is a nature-based carbon refining company that transforms waste carbon into materials such as sustainable fuels, fabrics, and packaging that people use in their daily lives.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year-ended December 31, 2022 combines the historical consolidated statements of operations of AMCI and LanzaTech for such period on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on January 1, 2022, the beginning of the period presented. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not include an unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2023 as the Business Combination is already reflected in the Company’s historical unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2023. Further, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 was not provided because the historical operating results of the AMCI were not material and pro forma results would not be materially different from reported results for the periods presented.
The related transactions that are given pro forma effect include:
the reverse recapitalization between AMCI and LanzaTech;
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the net proceeds from the issuance of 18,500,000 shares of New LanzaTech Common Stock in connection with the Private Placement; and
the Forward Purchase Agreement between AMCI, LanzaTech and ACM.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of New LanzaTech. The actual financial position and results of operations of New LanzaTech may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
The historical financial information of AMCI was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of AMCI as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, which are included in the Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2023. The historical financial information of LanzaTech was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of LanzaTech as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. This information should be read together with AMCI’s and LanzaTech’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus and in the Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2023.
LanzaTech, AMCI and ACM executed the Forward Purchase Agreement on February 3, 2023. Pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement, ACM obtained 5,916,514 Recycled Shares on the open market for $10.16 per share (“Redemption Price”), and such purchase price of $60.1 million was funded by the use of Trust Account proceeds as a partial prepayment for the Forward Purchase Agreement redemption 3 years from the date of the Business Combination (“Maturity Date”). ACM has the right at the end of 3 years to return the shares and keep the Prepayment Amount plus the fees described below, or may, at ACM’s sole discretion, partially or fully terminate this transaction over the course of the three-year term by returning cash in an amount equal to the number of shares terminated (“Terminated Shares”) multiplied by the Redemption Price, which may be reduced in the case of certain dilutive events (“Reset Price”).
At the end of the three-year term, New LanzaTech is obligated to pay ACM an amount equal to the product of (1) 7,500,000 less (b) the number of Terminated Shares multiplied by (2) $2.00 (the “Maturity Consideration”). In addition to the Maturity Consideration, on the Maturity Date, New LanzaTech shall pay to ACM an amount equal to the product of (x) 500,000 and (y) the Redemption Price, totalling $5.1 million (the “Share Consideration”).
In addition, pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreement, ACM may request, at its sole discretion, warrants of New LanzaTech exercisable for shares in an amount equal to 10,000,000 less the number of Recycled Shares (“Shortfall Warrants”). These warrants have an exercise price equal to the Reset Price. The form of the Shortfall Warrants shall be agreed upon by LanzaTech, AMCI and ACM within 45 days of the executed Forward Purchase Agreement. ACM has requested 4,083,486 Shortfall Warrants based on the number of Recycled Shares purchased, which were issued on March 27, 2023. In connection with the Forward Purchase Agreement, ACM assigned its rights, duties and obligations with respect to a portion of the shares purchased under the Forward Purchase Agreement to Vellar Opportunity Fund SPV LLC - Series 10.
The Business Combination closed on February 8, 2023 and was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with US GAAP. Under this method of accounting, AMCI was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of LanzaTech issuing stock for the net assets of AMCI, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of AMCI were stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of LanzaTech.
LanzaTech was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:
LanzaTech stockholders have the largest portion of voting rights (85.3%) in New LanzaTech;
LanzaTech’s existing senior management team comprise senior management of New LanzaTech;
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The operations of New LanzaTech primarily represent operations of LanzaTech; and
In comparison with AMCI, LanzaTech has significantly more revenues and total assets.
Description of the Business Combination
The aggregate consideration for the Business Combination will be payable in the form of shares of New LanzaTech common stock.
The following summarizes the purchase consideration:
Total shares transferred(1)
167,324,363 
Value per share(2)
$10.00 
Total share consideration$1,673,243,630 
Options exchanged(3)
143,756,370 
Total equity value(4)
$1,817,000,000 
______________
(1)Total shares transferred include the conversion of LanzaTech RSAs to New LanzaTech RSAs in accordance with the Merger Agreement. Total shares transferred do not include LanzaTech options. See note (3) directly below for further information on these instruments.
(2)Total share consideration is calculated using a $10.00 per-share reference price. The closing share price of the Business Combination was determined on the Closing Date. As the Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, the value per share is disclosed for informational purposes only in order to indicate the fair value of shares transferred.
(3)Options exchanged represents the conversion of LanzaTech options into New LanzaTech options in accordance with the Merger Agreement. These options are not assumed to be exercised for the purposes of the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and, therefore, have not been included in Total share consideration. The value of the options represents the number of shares that would be issued under the option agreements assuming full cash exercise. Those shares are valued at the $10.00 per-share reference price.
(4)Total equity value includes the value of the exchanged options assuming full cash exercise of all such instruments. The total equity value is equal to the equity value of $1,817.0 million outlined in the Merger Agreement.
The following summarizes the pro forma shares of New LanzaTech Common Stock outstanding:
Shares outstanding%
AMCI Public Stockholders
1,981,860 1.0 %
AMCI Shares subject to Forward Purchase Agreement(1)
5,916,514 3.0 %
AMCI Insiders(2)
2,500,000 1.3 %
Total AMCI Shares
10,398,374 5.3 %
Legacy LanzaTech stockholders
167,324,363 85.3 %
PIPE Investors
18,500,000 9.4 %
Pro Forma New LanzaTech Common Stock at December 31, 2022(3)
196,222,737 100.0 %
__________________
(1)Represents shares purchased by ACM as part of the Forward Purchase Agreement described in Footnote M below. These shares are redeemable at the option of ACM.
(2)1,250,000 AMCI Insider shares were cancelled and re-issued to public shareholders whereby those public shareholders agreed not to redeem their Class A common stock in connection with the Business Combination. The transfer of AMCI Insider shares served as an incentive for public shareholders to not redeem. These shares remain outstanding following the Closing and are reflected in this table as part of the AMCI Public Stockholders share count.
(3)Amounts and percentages exclude all LanzaTech options (including vested LanzaTech options) as they are not outstanding common stock at the time of Closing. Further, these amounts also exclude the 11,000,000 warrants outstanding to acquire AMCI Class A common stock as these were outstanding at the Closing. Additionally, amounts and percentages reflect no election by Brookfield or ArcelorMittal to convert any portion of the Brookfield SAFE or AM Warrant into shares of New LanzaTech common stock following the Closing.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 are based on the historical consolidated financial statements of AMCI and LanzaTech. The unaudited pro forma adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from
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the assumptions used to present the accompanying the unaudited condensed combined pro forma financial information.
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2022 (IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE AND PER SHARE AMOUNTS)
AMCI Acquisition Corp. II (Historical)LanzaTech NZ, Inc. (Historical)Transaction Accounting AdjustmentsPro Forma Combined
Revenue:
Revenue from contracts with customers - services
$— $27,798 $— $27,798 
Revenue from contracts with customers – tangible products
4,000 4,000 
Revenue from collaborative arrangements
— 2,575 — 2,575 
Revenue from related party transactions
— 2,970 — 2,970 
Total revenue
— 37,343 — 37,343 
Cost and operating expenses:
Cost of revenues from contracts with customers - services (exclusive of depreciation shown below)
— (22,912)— (22,912)
Cost of revenues from contracts with customers – tangible products (exclusive of depreciation shown below)
(3,648)(3,648)
Cost of revenue from collaborative arrangements (exclusive of depreciation shown below)
— (1,250)— (1,250)
Cost of revenue from related party transactions (exclusive of depreciation shown below)
— (477)— (477)
Research and development
— (53,191)(30)(CC)(54,400)
(1,179)(DD)
Depreciation expense
— (4,660)— (4,660)
Selling, general and administrative expense
— (26,804)(6,370)(AA)